2020届高三百所名校好题速递分项汇编(3)之阅读填空

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2020届高三百所名校好题速递分项汇编(3)之阅读填空

【广东省湛江市2019-2020学年高三上学期9月调研】根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

Why Ultra-pure(超高纯的)Water Is Actually Bad for Your Health Many people are surprised to hear that drinking purified water on a regular, daily basis is actually dangerous. So why is 100% 9 ultra-pure water not good for us? 36

There is no such thing as truly pure water in the natural world. 37    When these minerals dissolve(溶解)in water, they form what we commonly refer to as electrolytes(电解质).They allow us to perform all the “bioelectrical” functions such as moving, heart-beating, thinking, and seeing.

But pure water fails to provide these fundamental electrolytes. 38    You can think of it this way:imagine a room with no gravity, split in half down the middle. You throw a couple hundred balls into the left side of the room. 39     But if you cut a bunch of holes in the barrier, they will slowly start to spread over to the right side. Eventually, they will be evenly distributed across the entire room.

The water in your organs stays at very specific levels of minerals. When you drink ultra-purified water, it pulls the minerals out of your blood just like the right side of the space room pulled some of the bouncy balls over from the left. 40

Purified water can only be recommended as a way of drawing poisons out of the body. Once this is accomplished, the continued drinking of purified water is a bad idea.

A.Purified water is an active absorber.

B.Since there's no gravity, they bounce around everywhere.

C.It actually tries to rob your body of them when you drink it.

D.Even water in the purest lakes contains small amounts of minerals.

E.If you drank enough of it, the lack of minerals would eventually kill you.

F.The simple answer is that ultra-pure water doesn't provide the natural minerals we need#

G.This is why materials tend to move from more concentrated areas to less concentrated ones.

【答案】36.F37.D38.C39.B40.E

【解析】本文是一篇说明文,介绍了为什么喝超纯水会对身体造成危害。

36.空前“So why is 100%  ultra-pure water not good for us?”提到了一个问题——为什么超纯水对我们没有好处?此处是对这个问题的回答,故F项(简单的答案是,超纯水不能提供我们需要的天然矿物质)符合语境。

37.根据空前的“There is no such thing as truly pure water in the natural world.”可知,自然界中没有真正纯净的水,此处是对前面的补充说明,故D项(即使在最纯净的湖泊里,水也含有少量的矿物质)符合语境。

38.根据空前的“But pure water fails to provide these fundamental electrolytes.”可知,高纯水不能提供这些基本的电解质,此处承接上文,讲的是高纯水对体内电解质的危害,故C项(当你喝高纯水的时候,实际上它会把你体内的电解质夺走)符合语境。

39.根据空前的“imagine a room with no gravity, split in half down the middle. You throw a couple hundred balls into the left side of the room.”可知,想象一个没有重力的房间,从中间一分为二,你把几百个球扔到房间的左边,此处承接上文,讲的是没有重力的影响,故B项(因为没有重力,它们到处弹跳)符合语境。

40.根据空前的“When you drink ultra-purified water, it pulls the minerals out of your blood”可知,当你喝超纯水时,它会把你血液中的矿物质排出体外,此处总结上文,说的是缺乏矿物质对身体的不利影响,故E项(如果你喝的足够多,矿物质的缺乏最终会杀死你)符合语境。

【四川省宜宾市2018-2020学年高三上学期第一次诊断】根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

Some people seem to have a skill for learning languages. They can pick up new vocabulary, master rules of grammar, and learn to write in the new language more quickly than others.  36  First of all, successful language learners are independent learners. They do not depend on the book or teacher.  37 They try to find the patterns and rules by themselves. They are good guessers who look for clues and form their own conclusions. When they guess wrong, they guess again. They try to learn from their mistakes.

 38 Therefore, successful learners do not wait for a chance to use the language. They look for such a chance. They find people who speak the language and ask these people to correct them when they make a mistake.  39 They are not afraid to repeat what they hear or to say strange things. They are willing to make mistakes and try again. When communication is difficult, they can accept information that is inexact or incomplete. It is more important for them to learn to think in the language than to know the meaning of every word.

 40 They want to learn the language because they are interested in the language and the people who speak it. It is necessary for them to learn the language in order to communicate with these people and to learn from them.

A. Successful language learning is active learning.

B. They will try their best to communicate with others.

C. They discover their own way to learn the language.

D. Here’s a study of the way children learn to speak.

E. What makes language learning so much easier for them?

F. They find it easy to practice using the language regularly.

G. Finally, successful language learners are learners with a purpose.

【答案】36.E37.C38.A39.B40.G

【解析】这是一篇说明文。有些人似乎有学习语言的能力。他们可以学习新的词汇,掌握语法规则,学习用新的语言写作比其他人更快。文章说明了成功的语言学习者的一些学习经验和方法。

36.根据上一句"They can pick up new vocabulary, master rules of grammar, and learn to write in the new language more quickly than others"可知他们可以学习新词汇,掌握语法规则,并学会用新的语言比其他人更迅速,接来下讨论是什么让他们学习语言变得如此容易。故选E。

37.根据后一句"They try to find the patterns and rules by themselves,他们试图自己找到模式和规则"可知,他们发现了自己学习语言的方法。故选C。

38.根据后一句"Therefore, successful learners do not wait for a chance to use the language"可知,成功的语言学习是主动的学习,而不是等待着学习机会。故选A。

39.根据"When communication is difficult, they can accept information that is inexact or incomplete"可知,他们会尽力与他人沟通。克服交流上的障碍。故选B。

40.根据后一句话" It is necessary for them to learn the language in order to communicate with these people and to learn from them"可知,最后,成功的语言学习者是有目的学习者。是为了与其他人交流并向他们学习,故选G。

【四川省南充市2019-2020学年高三上学期统考】Do you have a hobby? Something you look forward to spending your time with? Something you love to do?    36    Or making model airplanes. Or making useful things out of waste material. It could be a musical instrument that you love playing. Or singing and dancing, 

There are many things that a hobby can give you, apart from an enjoyable time. Sashay was a shy boy but through his interest in model airplanes he learned the value of sticking to a task until it was finished. His model airplane club brought him to get into touch with similar souls.    37    

Having a hobby helps you relax and get away from the routines of school.    38    You really need this well-deserved one, too! It gives you focus, self-dependence, confidence and builds your personality. This is an opportunity, to lose yourself in an enjoyable activity, away from the pressure of school, so at the end of it, you feel relaxed and yet, mentally charged. 

Your hobby defines you.    39   And it also shows you what you are good at. and how far you can go, when you apply yourself. 

     So go ahead.    40    For a hobby is: 

*Happiness: something which you look forward to doing. 

*Opportunity: to nurture and develop your special and unique skills and celebrate them. 

*Believe in yourself: makes you understand your strong advantages and improves your confidence.

*Best in you: brings out your best-- for in each one of us there is a best that is only ours. 

YOU gives you a unique character, and makes you YOU! 

A. Develop a hobby.

B. It gives you a break.

C. It proves your ability.

D. Hobbies show )'our character.

E. It showcases your special skills.

F. It could be collecting something.

G. He learned to make friends for the first time.

【答案】36.F37.G38.B39.E40.A

【黑龙江省哈尔滨市第三中学校2020届高三上学期第一次验收】根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

What will you do if you can’t eat everything bought in the canteen? _____36_____ According to a survey, what students waste every year could feed over 10 million people.

_____37_____ According to Xinhua News Agency, the food wasted by Chinese people is about 50 million tons of grain every year, which could feed 200 million people.

Food waste, which has become a global issue, serves as a mirror that reflects various cultural and social issues in different countries. In the West, for instance, consumerism, the belief that it’s a good thing to use a lot of goods and services, is often to blame for food waste.  _____38_____ Chinese people are well known for being hospitable and generous. Many even feel that they lose face if their guests have eaten all the food. On campus, a generation of single children is less aware of the food waste issue. Students nowadays are well protected by their families and hardly have any concept of how much toil (辛劳) others go through in order to provide them with the food they eat.

_____39_____ There are over 925 million hungry people in the world, most of whom live in underdeveloped countries and areas. They don’t have enough food to eat. Many children die for lack of nutrition each year in some African countries. And farmers work very hard to grow the crops. _____40_____ It’s also important that everyone should think about how they can do their bit to reduce food waste.

    A. Most of us would simply throw away any leftover food.

    B. Students’ waste is extremely serious.

    C. China features its own eating culture.

    D. Compared with them, some live in a different world.

    E. But canteen waste is merely the tip of the iceberg.

    F. So there’s no excuse that we should waste our food.

G. Students can never realize the serious food crisis.

【答案】36.A37.E38.C39.D40.F

【解析】这是一篇新闻报道。短文报道了学生往往会把吃剩下的饭菜倒掉,学校食堂的浪费现象只是冰山一角,中国每年浪费的粮食有大约两千万吨,浪费食物的现象很严重。作者呼吁避免浪费从每个人做起。

36.由“What will you do if you can’t eat everything bought in the canteen? _____1_____ According to a survey, what students waste every year could feed over 10 million people.”可知,如果你不能吃完在食堂里所买的食物,你会怎么办。学生们会把吃不完的饭菜倒掉,由此造成的浪费能够养活一千多万人。所以小题1既要回答上一句的问题,又要承接下文。故A选项“我们大多数人会把剩下的食物扔掉”切题。故选A项。

37.由“According to Xinhua News Agency, the food wasted by Chinese people is about 50 million tons of grain every year, which could feed 200 million people”可知,据新华社报道,中国人每年浪费的粮食约5000万吨,可养活2亿人。所以小题2既要与上一段为转折关系,又要说食堂的浪费只是冰山一角,然后再具体说浪费严重的现象。故E选项“浪费只是冰山一角”切题。故选E项。

38.由“Chinese people are well known for being hospitable and generous”可知,中国人以热情大方而闻名。所以小题3要与后一句一同说明中国有自己的饮食文化与待客的态度。以此来对比西方的饮食文化。故C选项“中国有自己的饮食文化”切题。故选C项。

39.由“There are over 925 million hungry people in the world, most of whom live in underdeveloped countries and areas”可知,世界上有超过9.25亿饥饿人口,其中大多数生活在不发达国家和地区。所以本段主要在说与过度浪费相比,一些人正过着饥饿的生活。也就是小题4本段的标题所要表达的内容。故D选项“与他们相比,有些人生活在一个不同的世界里”切题。故选D项。

40.由“ Many children die for lack of nutrition each year in some African countries. And farmers work very hard to grow the crops”可知,在一些非洲国家,每年都有许多儿童死于营养不良。农民们非常努力地种植庄稼。所以小题5要与前一句为因果关系。故F选项“所以我们没有理由浪费食物”切题。故选F项。

【山西省祁县中学2019-2020届高三8月月考】根据短文内容.从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的俎佳选项•选项中有两项 为多余选项。

I Curling((冰壶)is a winter sport played on ice. Therefore, it's most popular in northern countries like Canada. Curlimg is played in the USA by about 15.000 people._36 Scottish winters were long and there were forms of entertainment. So people began making a sport out of sliding heavy stones on the frozen lakes The game spread, and in the 1700s curling clubs formed Then Scottish soldiers brought it to North America.

37    Men, women, and children often compete on the same team, if they can slide a forty-pound stone down the ice! Both teams slide their stones toward the same goal. After all 16 stones have been cast. the team whose stone has slid closest to the goal gets one point.

38  The ice is so smooth and the stone is so heavy that even the smallest misjudgment in a throw can make the stone slide much too far or stop too suddenly. 39  Water helps the stone slide, but it can also change the stone's path.

In curling、a broom is part of each player's equipment. A good curler must know how much force to use. The player must know the exact conditions of the ice on the court. 40   That may explain why the international Olympic Committee decided to make curling an Olympic sport in 1998.

A. Players compete on the court.

B. Then the play begins in the other direction.

C. Curling is played by teams of four people.

D. In other words, a good curler must be a fine athlete.

E. The rules are easy to learn, but playing the game is hard.

F. The melting of die ice makes things tough for the curlers.

G. Curling probably began in Scotland in the 1500s or earlier.

【答案】36.G37.C38.E39.F40.D

【解析】本文是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了一项奥林匹克运动项目——冰壶。

36.根据后文的Scottish winters were long and there were forms of entertainment. So people began making a sport out of sliding heavy stones on the frozen lakes苏格兰的冬天很长,有各种娱乐形式。因此,人们开始用在结冰的湖面上滑动的重石头制作一项运动,这项运动逐渐传播开来,可推知,此处是概述冰壶的历史渊源,所以此句为,冰壶运动可能起源于16世纪或更早的苏格兰。故选 G 。

37.根据本段的整体内容可知,本段主要讲的是冰壶的具体操作规则,所以此句为,冰壶比赛由四人组成的队伍进行。故选 C 。

38.上段讲的是冰壶的操作规则,本段讲的是冰壶的操作规则学起来容易,但具体操作起来并非易事,所以用The rules are easy to learn, but playing the game is hard.来承上启下。故选E。

39.根据前句The ice is so smooth and the stone is so heavy that even the smallest misjudgment in a throw can make the stone slide much too far or stop too suddenly.可推知,冰壶在实际操作中并非易事,与选项 F 呼应,并且 F 项中的“The melting of the ice”与空后的“Water”呼应。故选 F。

40.根据下文的That may explain why the international Olympic Committee decided to make curling an Olympic sport in 1998. 这也许可以解释为什么国际奥委会在1998年决定将冰壶运动列为奥运会项目。可推知,一个好的冰壶球员必须是一个好的运动员,故选 D。

 

 

【广西南宁市第三中学2020届高三9月月考】根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

Shopping therapy (疗法) is the practice of using the shopping experience to help overcome depression (沮丧) or other emotional problems.   36   Some experts think it happens as a result of deep- seeded human needs.

Many people benefit from shopping therapy. One of the most obvious things is the enjoyment people get from the items they buy.   37   When people shop, they often buy things they really care about on some level. For example, when people come home with a new shirt or a new computer, they assume that the item is going to improve their lives in some way. This can help reduce many feelings of unhappiness.

     38   Some experts think humans are linked with the need to constantly achieve and fight for improvement. People make a decision to buy something, and then actually follow through this plan. This is one way people can take action to directly change their own lives.[来源:Z*xx*k.Com]

People who don't actually have any money to buy things still benefit from shopping therapy. For them, simply browsing (浏览) can be a nice experience.  39   

The simple act of leaving home and spending time around other humans is another possible reason for the effectiveness of shopping therapy.  40   Many people even use shopping as a specific social activity by bringing people they care about along with them and turning the process into a pleasant activity.

A. So shop until you start feeling better.

B. That’ s because it helps them form future shopping plans.

C. Many people shop for this reason without even realizing it.

D. Other people have the feeling of achievement after shopping.

E. Many people have gone into debt due to shopping therapy addiction.

F. There is sometimes a sense of community in the shopping experience.

G. Most people find joy in buying new things, no matter how small they may be.

【答案】36.C37.G38.D39.B40.F

【解析】这是一篇说明文。本文主要介绍了购物疗法,它是利用购物经验帮助克服抑郁或其他情绪问题的做法。

36.根据文章第一句“Shopping therapy is the practice of using the shopping experience to help overcome depression or other emotional problems.”可知,购物疗法是利用购物经验帮助克服抑郁或其他情绪问题的做法,所以许多人出于这个原因购物,故选C。

37.根据第二段第一句“Many people benefit from shopping therapy.”,是第二段的主题句,本段内容都是在讲述许多人从购物疗法中受益,故选G。

38.根据句子“People make a decision to buy something,and then actually follow through this plan. This is one way people can take action to directly change their own lives.”可知,有的人购物后有成就感。人们决定买东西,然后真正执行这个计划。可知这是人们可以采取行动直接改变自己生活的一种方式。故选D。

39.根据本段前面几个句子可知,那些实际上没钱买东西的人仍然受益于购物疗法。对他们来说,简单的浏览是一种不错的体验,这还可以帮助他们形成未来的购物计划,故选B。

40.根据句子“Many people even use shopping as a specific social activity by bringing people they care about along with them and turning the process into a pleasant activity.”可知这正是购物中的社区感,故选F。

【浙江省名校新高考研究联盟(Z20联盟)2020届高三上学期第一次联考】根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

The world is a colorful landscape of different languages, skin colors, and different cultures. It’s important to have a good understanding of different cultures in order to become a well-rounded person   31   

One way is to read hooks written by authors from a particular culture. Reading works by authors who have a close relationship with a particular culture allows people to gain an authentic glimpse into the food, music, language, religion, and way of a life of a particular group of people.

 32 

Another way to learn about different cultures is to try to learn a foreign language.   33   A person can choose a language she has always wanted to learn and locate learning programs to help her master the language. Besides, one can enroll in a foreign language class in order to learn in a more formal setting. One can also try to visit areas of the city to establish social connection with native speakers of the language.

  34  Seek out restaurants that feature authentic food from a variety of countries. Food is an important part of different cultures and allows people to gain deep understanding into a particular cultural group’s way of life.

Communicating with people from other countries through email or snail mail is another useful way to become familiar with different cultures.    35    Various websites offer pen pal services, offering to connect individuals with pen friends around the world.

A. Stories based on a local culture expose one to a different culture.

B. Trying authentic food from a specific cultural group is also a great idea.

C. There are several ways to become knowledgeable about different cultures.

D.A variety of language-learning books, software, and audio programs is available,

E. The Internet has made it possible to communicate with others from different countries.

F. Making contact with native speakers of the language allows one to gain firsthand knowledge.

G. One way to develop this appreciation is to try to team about other cultures around the world.

【答案】31.C32.A33.D34.B35.E

【解析】这是一篇说明文。我们生活的这个世界是多姿多彩的,由不同的语言、肤色和文化。我们要学会欣赏这样多姿多彩的世界。

31.根据下文One way is to read hooks written by authors from a particular culture.(一种方法是阅读来自特定文化的作者写的书。)中可推断前句说的是“有几种方法可以让你了解不同的文化。”故选C。

32.根据下文Another way to learn about different cultures is to try to learn a foreign language.(学习不同文化的另一个方法是学习一门外语。)中different culture可对应到A选项Stories based on a local culture expose one to a different culture.(以当地文化为基础的故事能让人接触到不同的文化。)代入符合语境。故选A。

33.根据下文A person can choose a language she has always wanted to learn and locate learning programs to help her master the language. Besides, one can enroll in a foreign language class in order to learn in a more formal setting. One can also try to visit areas of the city to establish social connection with native speakers of the language.(一个人可以选择一门她一直想学的语言,并设置学习程序来帮助她掌握这门语言。此外,一个人可以报名参加外语班,以便在一个更正式的环境中学习。你也可以尝试访问城市的各个地区,与当地的母语者建立社会联系。)可知是在描述学习另一门语言的方式,故D选项“有各种各样的语言学习书籍、软件和音频程序。”符合语境。故选D。

34.根据下文Seek out restaurants that feature authentic food from a variety of countries.(寻找那些以来自不同国家的正宗食物为特色的餐厅。)可知是建议通过尝试来自特定文化群体的正宗食物来帮助学习外语。故选B。

35.根据下文Various websites offer pen pal services, offering to connect individuals with pen friends around the world.(各种各样的网站都提供笔友服务,提供个人与世界各地笔友的联系。)可知建议通过互联网和来自不同国家的人交流。故选E。

七选五题型看似简单,实际上有时完全作对并不容易,需要方法和分析能力及足够的耐力。这种题一般可从以下方面来做:

(1)看首段,跳过空格快速通读全篇,了解文章大意。首段的末句一般是全文的主题所在,首段的末句对于快速掌握文章的主题具有重要意义。

(2)首先快速浏览一遍七个备选答案,先确定哪个选项适合放在文章的什么位置。

(3)精读空格前后两句,利用各种衔接手段选择正确的选项填入空格。七选五空出的是整个句子,而这些句子与句子之间,必然有一种联系,因此我们可以通过选项中某个名词或动词跟空前或空后的一致性或者相关性来确定这两个句子之间有一种关联性,从而选择正确的答案。考查对上下文的理解及推理判断能力。

(4)看选项,找出与空前空后句中心词同义,近义或相关性的词语。实现关键词的对接,先易后难,各个突破。此外要通过句子的逻辑关系或句子的标点来判断该句在文章的位置。

(5) 解题的关键是能娴熟地利用各种衔接手段。尤其要注意代词,连词等。如表示转折关系的but,though, however 等。

做完后,通读全文。将所选项放入空白处,通读一遍,看看是否与上下文构成语义及逻辑上的直接关系,是否符合该处语境。能否承接前后的写作线索。

如第二小题,根据下文Another way to learn about different cultures is to try to learn a foreign language.(学习不同文化的另一个方法是学习一门外语。)中different culture可对应到A选项Stories based on a local culture expose one to a different culture.(以当地文化为基础的故事能让人接触到不同的文化。)代入符合语境。故选A。

 

 

 

【河北衡水中学2020届高三上学期英语第一次联考】5.根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空自处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。  

Try This at Home!

    Are you looking for a new pastime that will create a balance between physical activity and relaxation? Then yoga may be the perfect choice for you. Yoga can be practiced by people of all ages and levels of fitness.________ It's a great way to strengthen your muscles and become more flexible.

    In the 1930s, Indian Sri Tirumali and K. Pattabhi developed one of the most popular forms of yoga practised worldwide today. They worked together using an ancient Sansknt text called Yoga Korunta to create a set routine of yoga movements and breathing exercises. ________

    Ashtanga is different from other forms of yoga. It is a very powerful form of aerobic (有氧的)exercise which creates deep heat in the body. ________ In other forms of yoga, however, the routine can change each time and the stretching exercises aren't aerobic.

    ________As well as making you stronger and more flexible, it can also help you to stay calm. By focusing on your breathing while doing physical exercise, you are able to get a balance between mind and body. In addition, yoga helps to make us healthier so we are less likely to get common illnesses like colds. 

    Furthermore, yoga encourages you to think about what you're doing. Often you will close your eyes while doing certain movements.________After a few lessons you'll stop looking at what the others around you are doing. You will stop comparing yourself and start focusing on yourself.

A. It can also be done anywhere at any time.

B. The result of their co-operation was ashtanga yoga. 

C. Whatever kind of yoga you choose, there are many long-term benefits.

D. This allows you to concentrate better and it makes you less competitive.

E. Every time someone practices ashtanga, he or she does exactly the same movements.

F.  If you're interested in yoga, but can find a class near you, then it might be   an excuse to travel.

G. Recently, it has become extremely common for beginners as well as advanced yoga students to go on yoga holidays.

5.【答案】 A;B;E;C;D   

【解析】本文是一篇说明文,介绍了一项适合在家里做的有氧锻炼-阿斯汤加瑜伽。

 (1)考查对上下文的理解和推理判断能力。根据空前“Yoga can be practiced by people of all ages and levels of fitness.”瑜伽可以供所有年龄段以及不同健康程度的人练习。A项中的also一词承上进一步说明了“瑜伽也可以 供人们在任何 时间、任何地点来做”。故选A。

 (2)考查对上下文的理解和推理判断能力。根据空前“They worked together using an ancient Sansknt text called Yoga Korunta to create a set routine of yoga movements and breathing exercises. ”可知两位创始人合作共创了一套瑜伽动作和呼吸练习法 。空后一段接着介绍了ashtanga。B项中的co-operation和ashtanga yoga与上下文信息呼应,起到了 总结上文、开启下段的作用。故选B。

 (3)考查对上下文的理解和推理判断能力。根据空后“ In other forms of yoga, however, the routine can change each time and the stretching exercises aren't aerobic.”中的however表明前后为转折关系,该句中的the routine can change each time与E项中的Every time... does exactly the same movements正好形成对比。故选E。

 (4)考查对上下文的理解和推理判断能力。本段主要介绍了做瑜伽锻炼 能够给人带来的益处。C. Whatever kind of yoga you choose, there are many long-term benefits.“无论你选择哪种瑜伽,都会有长期的益处”,符合语境,故选C。

 (5)考查对上下文的理解和推理判断能力。根据上下文可知,本段重点介绍了瑜伽具有使人注意力集中、减轻竞争压力的作用。D项既符合上下文语境,又起到了承上启下的作用。故选D。本题要求在理解细节信息的基础上,着重考查对上下文的理解和推理判断能力。

【浙江省七彩阳光联盟2019—2020学年高三上学期期初联考】根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

___31___ While these compulsive(无法控制的) actions may appear to be irrational or pointless, and may even result in negative consequences, the individual experiencing the compulsion feels unable to stop him or herself.

The compulsive behavior can be a physical act, like hand washing, or a mental activity, like counting objects. When an otherwise harmless behavior becomes so consuming that it negatively impacts oneself or others, it may be a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)(强迫症).

___32___The former is an overwhelming desire to do something, while an addiction is a physical or chemical dependence on a substance or behavior. People with addictions will continue their addictive behavior, even when they understand that doing so is harmful to themselves and others. ___33___

Unlike compulsions and addictions, which are acted out uncontrollably, habits are actions that are repeated regularly and automatically.

Habits typically develop over time through a natural process called “habituation,” during which repetitive actions that must be consciously initiated eventually become subconscious and are carried out habitually.

While there are good habits and bad, unhealthy habits, any habit can become a compulsion or even an addiction. ___34___ For example, the good habit of exercising regularly can become an unhealthy compulsion or addiction when done to excess.

Common habits often develop into addictions when they result in a chemical dependency, as in the cases of smoking. The habit of having a glass of beer with dinner, for example, becomes an addiction when the desire to drink turns into a physical or emotional need to drink.

___35___While we can choose to add good, healthy habits to our routines, we can also choose to break old harmful habits.

 

A. A compulsion is different from an addiction.

B. It currently affects about 1 in 40 adults and 1 in 100 children in the U.S.

C. Some of these behaviors are visible actions while others are mental behaviors.

D. In other words, you really can have “too much of a good thing.”

E. Compulsive behaviors are actions that a person feels “compelled” or driven to do over and over again.

F. Alcoholism, smoking, and gambling are perhaps the most common examples of addictions.

G. Of course, the key difference between a compulsive behavior and a habit is the ability to choose to do them or not.

【答案】31. E    32. A    33. F    34. D    35. G

【解析】

这是一篇说明文。文章说明了强迫症是什么,以及强迫症与上瘾有什么区别以及强迫症与习惯的区别与关系。

31. 空格位于文章首句。由第二句中的“these compulsive(无法控制的) actions”可知,首句中一定会出现一些无法控制的行为。选项E中的“Compulsive behaviors”符合语境,且选项E使用下定义的方法,在首句中引出文章谈论的对象,也是符合语篇结构的。故选E。

32. 空格位于段首。由空格后第二句中的“the former…while an addiction…”可知,上句是将两个概念进行对比。选项A(强迫行为与上瘾是不同的。)是将a compulsion与an addiction进行对比,且an addiction与下句中的 an addiction呼应,a compulsion与下句中的an overwhelming desire to do something呼应,故选A。

33. 空格位于段尾。是对上一句的举例说明。选项F中的the most common examples of addictions与上句中的“People with addictions will…”呼应,故选F。

34. 空格位于段中。由空格后的For example可知,例子是来证明空格处观点的。举例的内容为(经常锻炼的好习惯当做的过度的时候也能变成不健康的强迫性行为或者成瘾),选项D(换句话说,你真的可能在一件好事情上过度)与这一例子的中心符合,故选D。

35. 空格位于段首。空格后内容为:我们可以在日常生活中增加好的健康的习惯,也可以选择打破旧的有害的习惯。选项G中的“the ability to choose to do them or not(选择做与不做的能力)”与空格后句子中的两个choose呼应,故选G。

七选五题目主要考查学生综合的英语逻辑思维能力。一篇好的短文,不仅在内容上要前后一致,而且还要语篇结构清晰,上下文逻辑意义严谨。内容的前后一致体现在段内及语篇内话题的自然过渡。语篇结构主要体现为:文章是总分结构,还是按时间或空间顺序发展的,还是辩证三段论的编排的。逻辑意义的严谨最主要的可以通过代词、连词和副词等形式来体现。例如本文中的第一题主要通过代词these的指代关系解题,第五题主要通过主旨句与后边句子之间谓语动词的呼应解题。这两题明显体现着句子之间的逻辑关系。第二题主要通过句式解题,第三题是给出观点选例子,第四题是给出例子选观点,解题方法是一致的。具体解题步骤参看详解,这里罗列出来的七选五的解题技巧的类型同学们要积累,便于需要时能及时发现用什么技巧解题准确度最高。

【黑龙江省鹤岗市第一中学2020届高三上学期8月开学考试】根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多于选项。

  36  . When a starving man gets a meal, he begins to think about an overcoat; when an executive gets a new sports car, visions of country clubs and pleasure beats dance into view.

The many wants of mankind might be regarded as making up several levels.   37  .

The first and most basic level of wants involves food. Once this want is satisfied, a second  level of wants appears: clothing and some sort of shelter. By the end of World War II these wants were satisfied for a great majority of Americans.   38  It included such items as automobiles and new houses.

By 1957 or 1958 this third level of wants was fairly well satisfied. Then, in the late 1950s a fourth level of wants appeared: the "life-enriching" level. While the other levels involve physical satisfaction-the feeding. comfort, safety, and transportation of the human body-this level stresses mental needs for recognition, achievement and happiness. It includes a variety of goods and services. many of which could be called "luxury" items. Among them are vacation trips, the best medical care, and entertainment.   39  

On this level, a greater percentage of consumer spending goes to services, while on the first three levels more is spent on goods. Will consumers raise their sights to a fifth level of wants as their income increases, or will they continue to demand luxuries and personal services on the fourth level?

A fifth level probably would involve wants that can be achieved best by community action. Consumers may be spending more on taxes to pay for government action against disease, ignorance, crime and prejudice.   40   In this way, we can enjoy more fully the good things on the first four levels.

A. Then a third level appeared.

B. Human wants seem endless.

C. When there is money enough to satisfy one level of wants, another level appears

D. There are several levels of wants in one's life.

E. At this stage, we now may seek to ensure the health, safety, and leisure.

F. Also included here are fancy foods and the latest styles in clothing

G. Different people have different wants on each level.

【答案】36.B37.C38.A39.F40.E

【解析】本文属于说明文阅读,作者在这篇文章中讲述了人的欲望的不同的阶段,以及不同的阶段的不同的需要层次。

36.根据下句When a starving man gets a meal, he begins to think about an overcoat.(当一个饥饿的人吃饭时,他开始想一件大衣。)可知,当一个饥饿的人有了吃的,就想穿的,人的欲望是无穷的。故选B。

37.根据前一句The many wants of mankind might be regarded as making up several levels.(人类的许多需要可以看作是由几个层次构成的。)可知人的欲望被分为好几个不同的等级。横线后面的内容具体分析了不同的等级情况。故选C。

38.根据前面的The first和a second level说明本句提及的是第三个level。故选A。

39.根据前句It includes a variety of goods and services,many of which could be called "luxury" items. Among them are vacation trips,the best medical care,and entertainment.(它包括各种各样的商品和服务,其中很多可以被称为“奢侈”品。其中有假期旅行,最好的医疗,娱乐。)说明在这一层次里包含了很多的奢侈要求,故选F。

40.根据下句in this way, we can enjoy more fully the good things on the first four levels. (这样,我们就能更充分地享受前四层的美好事物。)说明在这一阶段消费者要寻求的是更高层次的要求,故选E。

 

 

 

 

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