2020届高三百所名校好题专题二 之阅读理解

来源:未知 作者:高考提分狙击手 时间:2020-08-06 09:58 点击:

2020届高三百所名校好题速递分项汇编(2)之阅读理解

【河南省2020届高三入学摸底】阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。

A

Here are the most popular Toronto activities.

Niagara Falls Full Day Tour

On this attractive tour, you will step aboard a luxury bus and head to famed Niagara Falls. On your arrival, you’ll take a voyage on the Maid of the Mist or Journey Behind the Falls (depends on weather conditions) to get as close to this natural wonder as possible. Then feast on an appetizing buffet lunch while enjoying the breathtaking sights of Niagara Fall. Afterwards, spend time exploring the shops and attractions of the charming, scenic town Niagara-on-the-Lake. It’s sure to be a day filled with beauty and wonder. The tour lasts approximately 8 hours.

Hop On/Hop Off City Tour Toronto

This 2.5-hour tour starts from either Nicholby’s Souvenir Shop located at 123 Front Street West, or Yonge/ Dundas Square located at the corner of Yonge and Dundas Streets. You may also join the tour at any of the points along the route.

Toronto Daily Combination Tours

This tour combines both land and water views of beautiful Toronto. You’ll start the tour taking a two-hour bus tour through this multi-cultural city. You’ll see sights like CN Tower, Chinatown, and more, before heading over to Queen’s Quay for a one-hour Harbor Cruise.

Downtown Toronto Bike Tour

Hop on a bike and follow your local guide through downtown Toronto! Discover popular attractions such as Chinatown, Kensington Market, the Hockey Hall of Fame and City Hall, as well as scenic out-of-the-way spots. Hear stories about Toronto’s culture and history and sample some food at markets along the way. This easy, fun 4-hour ride is suitable for all riders, so you can bring the whole family along. This small-group tour is limited to 12 people, ensuring a more personalized experience. Meet your guide at the Village by the Grange in the morning for a brief training.

1. What will tourists do after lunch on the Niagara Falls Full Day Tour?

A. Enjoy some thrilling rides.

B. Go on a voyage on the Falls.

C. Go shopping in the town Niagara.

D. Appreciate the sights of Niagara Falls.

2. Which of the following tours lasts the least time?

A. Hop On/ Hop Off City Tour Toronto.

B. Toronto Daily Combination Tours.

C. Downtown Toronto Bike Tour.

D. Niagara Falls Full Day Tour.

3. Where will the riders be trained for the Downtown Toronto Bike Tour?

A. In Chinatown.

B. At Kensington Market.

C. In the Hockey Hall of Fame.

D. At the Village by the Grange.

【答案】1.C2.A3.D

【解析】这是一篇应用文。短文主要介绍加拿大多伦多的几种旅游活动。

1.细节理解题。由Niagara Falls Full Day Tour中的 “Afterwards, spend time exploring the shops and attractions of the charming, scenic town Niagara-on-the-Lake”可知,午饭后可以去风光旖旎的尼亚加拉小镇上逛逛商店和寻找好玩的地方。所以参加尼亚加拉瀑布全天游的游客午餐后会可以去尼亚加拉小镇购物。故选C项。

2.细节理解题。由Hop On/Hop Off City Tour Toronto中的“This 2.5-hour tour”可知,第二个活动历时两个半小时,是这几个旅游活动中时间最短的。故选A项。

3.细节理解题。由Downtown Toronto Bike Tour中的“Meet your guide at the Village by the Grange in the morning for a brief training.”可知,游客早上要在 the Village by the Grange与导游汇合并接受基本的训练。故选D项。

B

There is now a museum for pizza lovers in America’s pizza capital, New York City. The Museum of Pizza is devoted to pizza, cheese and sauce, but there’s more to it than meets the tougue.

“It’s often that the simplest ideas are the best. And we wanted to use pizza’s appeal to get people through the door and to look at art and hear about history in a different forms,” said Alexandra Serio, Chief Content Officer at Nameless Network, the group that baked the Museum of Pizza idea. Another instantly recognizable characteristic of the space is the bright colors that are weaved (穿行) throughout the exhibits—perfect for taking social media-ready pictures.

Located on the street level of Brooklyn’s William Vale hotel, the museum is a large, one-floor space that houses a wide variety of art, from giant photographs to sculptures that surround visitors.

Serio said exhibits of this kind are becoming an advantage for museums as they try to get younger legs to walk through their doors. “It’s a kind of change,” she said. “You’ll see it in the next few years because of museums like the Museum of Ice Cream, and multiple pop-ups (出现) of this kind of museums suiting a younger audience and seeing how they can make their exhibitions more attractive, touch and photography friendly.”

“Honestly, I thought it would be like more of a museum in the beginning, with the pizza boxes and it tells you when it was developed and things like that,” said Nene Raye, visitor from New Jersey.

Lydia Melendez, a self-described “pizza fan”, bought her tickets in April and for her, this experience was worth the wait. “I thought it was going to be kind of boring, like I’m going to walk in and there’s just going to be a book about pizza and how to make it, but this is definitely one for the books.” she said.

4. What’s a noticeable attraction of the pizza-themed museum according to Serio?

A. It covers a large area.

B. Visitors can bake pizza in it.

C. It’s perfect for taking amazing pictures.

D. Its exhibits are arranged in the simplest way.

5. Who is the museum targeted at?

A. Younger audience. B. Ice cream lovers.

C. Artists and sculpturers. D. Professional photographers.

6. What does Lydia Melendez think of the museum?

A. It is kind of disappointing. B. It is surprisingly wonderful.

C. It is definitely a dull museum. D. It looks like a traditional museum.

7. Which can be the best title for the text?

A. Small Pizza, Huge Influence

B. New York City, Pizza Capital

C. Fashionable Museums Appear in America

D. Pizza Museum Meets More Than the Tongue

 

【答案】4.C5.A6.B7.D

【解析】这是一篇新闻报道类记叙文。短文介绍了美国纽约的快闪披萨博物馆及游客对它的评价。

4.细节理解题。由第二段“Another instantly recognizable characteristic of the space is the bright colors that are weaved (穿行) throughout the exhibits—perfect for taking social media-ready pictures.”可知,展品间明亮的光照非常适合拍摄社交媒体上的照片。所以根据 Serio所说这家披萨主题博物馆最引人注目的地方是灯光布置能拍出令人惊喜的照片。故选C项。

5.细节理解题。由第四段“ It’s a kind of change,” she said. “You’ll see it in the next few years because of museums like the Museum of Ice Cream, and multiple pop-ups (出现) of this kind of museums suiting a younger audience”可知,此披萨博物馆是一种改变,和冰激凌博物馆及其他很多这样的博物馆一样,更适合年轻人的需求。所以博物馆针对的对象是年轻的观众。故选A项。

6.推理判断题。由最后一段“I thought it was going to be kind of boring, like I’m going to walk in and there’s just going to be a book about pizza and how to make it, but this is definitely one for the books.” she said”可知,我以为这种博物馆很无趣。她觉得,这里不过是寻找披萨食谱的地方。但她很开心,因为实际经历与她的凭空想象大相径庭。所以根据Lydia Melendez所说的话的内容可以判断出,Lydia Melendez原以为这个披萨博物馆会比较枯燥乏味,但是走进去却发现这个博物馆并不枯燥而是太棒了,太奇妙了,她对此感到非常吃惊。故选B项。

7.主旨大意题。由第一段“The Museum of Pizza is devoted to pizza, cheese and sauce, but there’s more to it than meets the tougue.”可知,披萨博物馆专门展出披萨、奶酪和酱料,但它满足的不仅仅是你的味觉。以及下文对快闪披萨博物馆的具体介绍。以及游客对于它的积极的评价可知,短文主要介绍新型博物馆——披萨博物馆满足的不仅仅是你的味觉。故短文的最佳标题为“披萨博物馆满足的不仅仅是你的味觉”。故选D项。

C

If we want a fair shot at transitioning to renewable energy, we’ll need one critical thing: technologies that can change electricity from wind and sun into a chemical fuel for storage and vice versa (反之亦然). Commercial devices that do this exist, but most are costly and perform only half of the expectation. Now, researchers have created small lab-scale devices that do both jobs. If larger versions work as well, they would help make it possible—or at least more affordable—to run the world on renewables.

The market for such technologies has grown along with renewables: In 2007, solar and wind provided just 0.8% of all power in the United States: in 2017, that number was 8%, according to the U. S. Energy Information Administration. But the demand for electricity often doesn’t match the supply from solar and wind. In sunny California, for example, solar panels regularly produce more power than needed in the middle of the day, but none at night, after most workers and students return home.

Some companies are beginning to install massive rows of batteries in hopes of storing extra energy and balancing the financial sheet. But batteries are costly and store only enough energy to back up the power system for a few hours at most. Another option is to store the energy by transforming it into hydrogen fuel. Devices called electrolyzers (电解器) do this by using electricity—ideally from solar and wind power—to break down water into oxygen and hydrogen gas, a carbon-free fuel. A second set of devices called fuel cells can then transform that hydrogen back to electricity to power cars, trucks, and buses, or to feed it to the power system. But commercial electrolyzers and fuel cells use different catalysts (催化剂) to speed up the two reactions, meaning a single device can t do both jobs. The researchers must conquer this.

“They did a really good job with that.” says Sossina Haile, a chemist at Northwestern University in Evanston. Still, she holds a cautious view that both her new device and the one from the O’Hayre lab are small laboratory demonstrations. For the technology to have a societal impact, researchers will need to scale up the button-size devices, a process that typically reduces performance.

8. What can we learn about the new device from the first paragraph?

A. Its universal use remains to be seen.

B. It is more expensive but more practical.

C. It can transform more renewable energy.

D. It is the most advanced around the world.

9. What does paragraph 2 mainly talk about?

A. The rapid development of American technologies.

B. The potential market for energy transformation technologies.

C. The history of energy transformation technologies.

D. The lack of power in California.

10. What may the researchers focus on next?

A. Lessening costly batteries.

B. Increasing the efficiency of the two reactions.

C. Looking for one shared catalysts for the two reactions.

D Breaking down water into a carbon-free fuel without using electricity.

11. What is Haile’s attitude to the future of the new device?

A. Positive. B. Negative. C. Critical. D. Cautious.

【答案】8.A9.B10.C11.D

【解析】这是一篇科普说明文。文章主要介绍一种能够转化可再生能源的新装置。

8.推理判断题。根据第一段“Now, researchers have created small lab-scale devices that do both jobs. If larger versions work as well, they would help make it possible—or at least more affordable—to run the world on renewables.”可知,现在,研究人员已经创造出了同时具备这两种功能的实验室规模的设备。如果更大的版本也能发挥作用,它们将有助于使世界上使用可再生能源成为可能——或者至少更经济实惠。所以通过关键词“ small lab-scale devices ,if引导的条件状语从从句”可以推断出,这种新装置大规模地投入使用还需拭目以待。故选A项。

9.主旨大意题。由第二段“The market for such technologies has grown along with renewables”可知,这类技术的市场随着可再生能源的发展而增长以及对市场增长的具体介绍可知,第二段主要说明这个新装置潜在的市场很大。故选B项。

10.推理判断题。由第三段“But commercial electrolyzers and fuel cells use different catalysts (催化剂) to speed up the two reactions, meaning a single device can t do both jobs. The researchers must conquer this.”可知,但是商业电解器和燃料电池用不同的催化剂加速这两种反应,这意味着一个设备不能同时做这两件事。研究人员必须攻克这个难题。这个难题是必须攻克的,也是研究人员下一步要集中解决的问题。所以推断出,接下来研究人员会主攻这两种反应能够共用的催化剂。故选C项。

11.推理判断题。根据最后一段“Still, she holds a cautious view that both her new device and the one from the O’Hayre lab are small laboratory demonstrations. For the technology to have a societal impact, researchers will need to scale up the button-size devices, a process that typically reduces performance.”可知,不过,她提醒说,她的新设备和来自奥海雷实验室小型的实验室演示。为了让这项技术产生社会影响,研究人员需要增加这种纽扣大小设备的产量,但是这一过程通常会降低其性能。所以通过Haile的观点可以推断出,她对这个新装置的未来持谨慎的态度,虽然实验室成功了,但并不代表量产就没有问题。没有盲目自信也没有消极放弃。故选D项。

根据文章中人物所说的话的内容是解决推理判断题的重要方法,因为通过所说的内容,我们可以判断出,作者所要想表达的观点是积极的还是消极的,是中立的还是支持或者否定某一方,对事情是关心的还是冷漠的。是在提出建议还是在提出具体的解决措施。

根据最后一段“Still, she holds a cautious view that both her new device and the one from the O’Hayre lab are small laboratory demonstrations. For the technology to have a societal impact, researchers will need to scale up the button-size devices, a process that typically reduces performance.”可知,不过,她提醒说,她的新设备和来自奥海雷实验室小型的实验室演示。为了让这项技术产生社会影响,研究人员需要增加这种纽扣大小设备的产量,但是这一过程通常会降低其性能。所以通过Haile的观点可以推断出,她对这个新装置的未来持谨慎的态度,虽然实验室成功了,但并不代表量产就有没问题。没有盲目自信也没有消极放弃。故小题4选D项。

D

It is a question that has long puzzled scientists—exactly why are tigers orange? One might think it makes them more obvious-particularly against a leafy green forest background. William Blake summed it up in his famous poem known by generations of schoolchildren: “Tyger, tyger, burning bright / In the forest of the night.” But now the answer is at hand.

While obvious to us, computer simulations (模拟) of what the big cats look to the main animals they hunt for, deer, show a different picture. Humans with normal colour vision, can see red, blue and green colours. But deer can only pick up blue and green light, they are effectively colourblind to the colour red, like some humans. It means the tigers’ orange colouration looks green to them, allowing them to mix perfectly into the background, new research claims.

Dr John Fennell at the University of Bristol and colleagues said that they used computers to estimate how noticeable a given animal was. They did this by using images of the environment in which the animal lives, and then creating images to see whether the camouflage helps the animal to mix in.

Dr Fennell writes that by simulating what the world looks like to animals who are “two-colour vision”—someone who cannot discover the difference between red and green—“we also identify the most suitable colours for hiding and visibility”.

Dr Fennell writes in the Royal Society Journal Inter face: “Considering the coat of a tiger, it has fur that appears orange to a three-colour vision observer rather than some shade of green, though the latter should be more appropriate color for an attack hunter in forests. However, when viewed as a two-colour vision observer, the tiger’s colour is very effective.”

The question then arises as to why tigers don’t grow green coats. Dr Fennell and colleagues write that mammals (哺乳动物) are not able to produce green fur. To do so would “require a significant change to mammalian biochemistry”. There is only one mammal known to have green fur but this is achieved through what might be considered as, well, cheating, not exactly real.

12. Why does the author mention the poem in paragraph 1?

A. To arouse reader s interest in poems.

B. To show the authors respect to the poet.

C. To answer the question of the color of the tiger

D. To stress the noticeable color of the tiger to us.

13. What color is inexistent in the eyes of deer?

A. Black. B. Red. C. Blue. D. Green.

14. What does the underlined word “camouflage” mean in paragraph 3?

A. The cover of something.

B. The images of something.

C. The way of hiding something.

D. The way of hunting for something.

15. What can be inferred from the last paragraph?

A. The colour of tigers sometimes cheats people.

B. Getting green may prevent tigers from being extinct.

C. There are no mammals with real green fur in the world.

D. The tigers’ fur will probably evolve into green in the future.

【答案】12.D13.B14.C15.C

【解析】这是一篇说明文。为什么老虎是橙色的?这个长期困扰科学家的问题终于被科学家们破解了。

12.推理判断题。由“It is a question that has long puzzled scientists—exactly why are tigers orange? One might think it makes them more obvious-particularly against a leafy green forest background”可知,这是一个长期困扰科学家的问题——为什么老虎是橙色的?有人可能会认为这让它们变得更加显眼——尤其是在茂密的绿色森林背景下。所以通过提到英国诗人和画家威廉·布雷克的一首诗的内容可以判断出,所提及的诗是为了例证文章开头的陈述---对于我们人类来说,老虎的颜色太显眼了。故选D项。

13.细节理解题。由第二段“It means the tigers’ orange colouration looks green to them, allowing them to mix perfectly into the background, new research claims.””以及第四段 “...animals who are “two-colour vision”—someone who cannot discover the difference between red and green”可知,这意味着老虎的橙色在它们看来是绿色的,这使得老虎可以完美地融入周围的背景双基色的动物无法分辨红色和绿色,也就是说,在鹿的眼中是没有红色系的,而橙色属于红色系。故选B项。

14.词句猜测题。由第三段“They did this by using images of the environment in which the animal lives, and then creating images to see whether the camouflage helps the animal to mix in.”可知,他们通过使用动物所处环境的图像来做到这一点,然后创建图像来观察伪装方式是否有助于动物分不清它们。所以通过上下文的语境可以判断出,第3段下划线的"camouflage"一词是指隐藏的方式。故选C项。

15.推理判断题。由最后一段“ mammals (哺乳动物) are not able to produce green fur. There is only one mammal known to have green fur but this is achieved through what might be considered as, well, cheating, not exactly real.”可知,哺乳动物无法长出绿色皮毛。世上已知的哺乳动物中只有一种有绿色皮毛但却是通过被认为可能是欺诈的手段才实现的,不是真正的绿色。所以通过关键词“are not able to produce green fur, cheating, not exactly real”可推断出,世界上没有绿色皮毛的哺乳动物。故选C项。

抓住特定信息进行逆向或者正向推理。做此类试题要善于抓住某一段话中的关键信息,即某些关键词或短语去分析、推理、判断,利用逆向思维或正面推理,从而推断出这句话所隐含的深层含义。

根据最后一段“ mammals (哺乳动物) are not able to produce green fur. There is only one mammal known to have green fur but this is achieved through what might be considered as, well, cheating, not exactly real.”可知,哺乳动物无法长出绿色皮毛。世上已知的哺乳动物中只有一种有绿色皮毛但却是通过被认为可能是欺诈的手段才实现的,不是真正的绿色。所以通过关键词“are not able to produce green fur, cheating, not exactly real”可推断出,世界上没有绿色皮毛的哺乳动物。故小题4选C项。

【2020届重庆市一中高三上学期摸底】阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C和D)中,选出最佳选项

A

Optional Tours Available in Langkawi

Langkawi geopark 1 mangrove tours and eagle feeding

Catch exciting movement and magnificent views of how eagles try to get their food skillfully at kilim river mangrove jungle safiari, visit limestone bats cave and have lunch on floating restaurant. package includes:

return transfier (hotel-marina-hotel)

licensed and experienced crew

food and beverage

adult rate RM 160.00/ person

child rate (age 3 ~12yrs) RM 120.00/ person infant (below 3yrs) free

time: 9.00 am - 14.00 pm

Langkawi geopark 2 snorkeling and baby shark feeding

Pulau Payar marine park with spectacular corals and colorful tropical marine life is one of the most beautiful and exotic marine parks in Malaysia.

♦diving _ additional RM 150.00 / person package includes:

return transfier (hotel-marma-hotel) licensed and experienced crew food and beverage

adult rate RM 220.00/ person

child rate (age 3 -12yrs) RM 150.00/ person infant (below 3yrs) free

time: 8.00 am - 17.00 pm

 

Langkawi geopark 3

Day cruise around Langkawi archipelago

Experience swimming among fishes and view spectacular corals and exotic marine life. package includes:

return transfer (hotel-marina-hotel) licensed and experienced crew food and beverage

adult rate RM 450.00/ person

child rate (age 3 -12yrs) RM 350.00/ person infant (below 3yrs) free

time: 9.00 am 一 17.00 pm

Langkawi geopark 4 amazing sunset cocktail and dinner cruise

Experience the amazing sunset scenery around the Andaman sea while having cocktail and dinner package includes:

return transfer (hotel-marina-hotel) licensed and experienced crew food and beverage

adult rate RM 350.00/ person

child rate (age 3 -12yrs) RM 250.00/ person infant (below 3yrs) free

time: 16.00 pm 一 21.00 pm

 

1.What is special about the tour at Langkawi geopark 1?

A. It lasts the longest. B. It allows tourists to feed animals.

C. It is the cheapest. D. It provides food.

2.How much does it cost if a couple go on a day cruise with their 3-year-old kid?

A. 800.00 RM. B. 1250.00 RM.

C. 900.00 RM. D. 450.00 RM.

3.Which tour favors those who want to start their tour in the afternoon?

A. Langkawi geopark 1. B. Langkawi geopark 2.

C. Langkawi geopark 3. D. Langkawi geopark 4.

 

【答案】1.C2.B3.D

【解析】本文是一篇应用文,介绍了兰卡威岛的四条旅游路线。

1.细节理解题。对比表格右侧四条旅游路线的票价信息可知,线路1的价格是最低的(成人每人RM 160.00,3-12岁儿童每人RM 120.00),因此它的特别之处是它是四条路线中最便宜的,故C项正确。

2.细节理解题。根据四条路线的介绍可知,路线3是邮轮旅行,它的成人票价是每人RM 450.00,3-12岁儿童每人RM 350.00,因此一对夫妇带着三岁的孩子进行一天的邮轮旅行需要花RM 1250.00(RM 450.00×2+ RM 350.00),故B项正确。

3.细节理解题。根据表格最后一栏信息可知,路线4的时间是下午4点到晚上9点,而其他三条路线都是从上午开始,在下午2点或5点结束,因此路线4最适合下午旅游的游客,因为他们可以一直玩到9点,故D项正确。

B

British children's writer Roald Dahl ate chocolates and sweets "pretty much every mealtime", remembers daughter Ophelia Dahl.

After dinner, whether dining alone or entertaining guests, Dahl would pass around a little red plastic box full of Mars Bars, Milky Ways, Maltesers, Kit Kats and much more.

He knew the history of all the sweets and could tell you exactly when they were invented. 1937 was a big year when Kit Kats (his favorite), Rolos, and Smarties (his dog, chopper's favorite) were invented. He wrote a history of chocolate, lecturing schoolchildren to commit such dates to memory, such as 1928 when "Cadbury's Fruit and Nut Bar popped up on the scene", saying don't bother with the Kings and Queens of England. All of you should learn these dates instead. Perhaps the Headmistress will see from now on that it becomes part of the major teaching in this school.

According to Dahl, the Golden Years of Chocolate were 1930-1937. In 1930, Roald Dahl was 14 years old. He was a student at Repton, a famous boys' boarding school in England. It was a tough environment: Those in authority were more interested in controlling than educating the students.

Ironically, it was at this difficult period that chocolate became Dahl's passion. Near Repton was a Cadbury chocolate factory. Every so often, Cadbury would send each schoolboy a sampler box of new chocolates to taste and grade. They were using the students — "the greatest chocolate bar experts in the world" to test out their new inventions.

This was when Dahl's imagination took flight. He pictured fiactories with inventing rooms with pots of chocolate and fudge (软糖)and “all sorts of other delicious fillings bubbling away on the stoves”.

“It was lovely dreaming those dreams... when I was looking for a plot for my second book for children, I remembered those little cardboard boxes and the newly-invented chocolates inside them, and I began to write a book called Charlie and the Chocolate Factory."

For the record, Roald Dahl did not like chocolate cake or chocolate ice cream. He said, “I prefer my chocolate straight.”

4.What can we learn about Roald Dahl?

A.He treated himself with various chocolates after dinner secretly.

B.He has a good knowledge of chocolate, especially its history.

C.He used to lecture schoolchildren of a boys, boarding school.

D.He only wrote some books related to the history of chocolate.

5.What happened during the Golden Years of Chocolate?

A.It was a great time for children to get educated.

B.Those years stopped Dahl's interest in chocolate.

C.Students could become chocolate experts then.

D.Roald Dahl's passion for chocolate was lit up then.

6.Which of the following can best replace the underlined phrase?

A.paid off B. went on C. picked up D. took off

7.What gave Roald Dahl inspiration to write Charlie and the Chocolate Factory?

A.The dreams about chocolates. B. Factories with chocolate and fudge.

C. Those boxes with chocolates. D. Chocolate cakes and ice cream.

【答案】4.B5.D6.D7.C

【解析】本文是一篇记叙文,讲述了英国儿童作家Roald Dahl对巧克力的热情。

4.细节理解题。根据第三段中的“He knew the history of all the sweets and could tell you exactly when they were invented.”可知,Roald Dahl对巧克力很了解,尤其是它的历史,故B项正确。

5.细节理解题。 根据第五段中的“Ironically, it was at this difficult period that chocolate became Dahl's passion.”可知,在巧克力的黄金时代,14岁的Roald Dahl对巧克力的热情由此点燃,故D项正确。

6.词义猜测题。画线词后是Roald Dahl想象的场景:工厂里的房间里,一盆盆巧克力和软糖,以及各种各样美味的馅料,在炉子上咕嘟咕嘟地冒着热气,也就是说Roald Dahl的想象力飞了起来,由此可知画线词词义为“起飞”,故D项正确。

7.细节理解题。根据倒数第二段中的“I remembered those little cardboard boxes and the newly-invented chocolates inside them, and I began to write a book called Charlie and the Chocolate Factory."”可知,是那些装满巧克力的盒子给了Roald Dahl写《查理与巧克力工厂》的灵感,故C项正确。

词义猜测题难度较大,对画线词上下文的理解是关键,例如本篇第3题,根据画线词后的“He pictured factories with inventing rooms with pots of chocolate and fudge (软糖)and “all sorts of other delicious fillings bubbling away on the stoves””可知,Roald Dahl想象着这样的场景:工厂里的房间里,一盆盆巧克力和软糖,以及各种各样美味的馅料,在炉子上咕嘟咕嘟地冒着热气,也就是说Roald Dahl的想象力飞了起来,特别是“pictured”一词表明画线词词义为“起飞”。

C

Technology is supposed to make our lives easier, allowing us to do things more quickly and efficiently. But too often it seems to make things harder. This increase in complexity, often called "feature creep," costs consumers time, but it also costs business money. Product returns in the U.S. cost a hundred billion dollars a year, and a recent study by Elke den Ouden, of Philips Electronics, found that at least half of returned products have nothing wrong with them. Consumers just couldn't figure out how to use them. Companies now know a great deal about problems of usability and consumer behavior, so why is it that feature creep proves unstoppable?

In part, fieature creep is the product of the so-called internal-audience problem: the people who design and sell product are not the ones who buy and use them, and what engineers and marketers think is important is not necessarily what's best for consumers. The engineers tend not to notice when more options make a product less usable. And marketing and sales departments see each additional feature as a new selling point, and a new way to attract customers.

You might think, then, that companies could avoid fieature creep by just paying attention to what customers really want. But that's where the trouble begins, because although consumers find overloaded gadgets( 配件)unmanageable, they also find them attractive. It turns out that when we look at a new product in a store we tend to think that the more features there are, the better. It is only once we get the product home and try to use it that we realize the virtues of simplicity.

It seems strange that we don't expect feature tiredness and thus avoid it. But, as numerous studies have shown, people are not, in general, good at predicting what will make them happy in the future. As a result, we will pay more for more features because we systematically overestimate how often we'll use them. We also overestimate our ability to figure out how a complicated product works.

The fact that buyers want bells and whistles but users want something clear and simple creates an unusual problem for companies. A product that doesn't have enough features may fail to catch our eye in the store. But a product with too many features is likely to annoy consumers.

8.What does the first paragraph mainly discuss?

A.The benefits brought by the advanced technology.

B.The recent study conducted by Elke den Ouden.

C.The loss caused by the feature creep of technology.

D.Many problems of usability known by the consumers.

9.Which of the following is true according to the second paragraph?

A.It is the audience problem that leads to feature creep.

B.What matters to designers and marketers is not good for consumers.

C.Feature creep brings blessings to the people in marketing and sales.

D.The engineers will not pay attention to the quality of the product

10.What do we know about the buyers in paragraph 4?

A.They are deeply convinced that all the products work in simple way.

B.They are fed up with the more and more features of the products.

C.They are too confident of their ability to use the complicated products.

D.They are quite clear about the products which will make them happy.

11.What can be a suitable title for the text?

A.Saying No to Feature Creep is No Easy Thing

B.Feature-heavy Products in Demand

C.The More Features, the Better

D.Simplicity Outweighs Complexity

【答案】8.C9.C10.C11.A

【解析】本文是一篇说明文,介绍了科技的“功能蔓延”是不可阻挡的,拒绝“功能蔓延”不是一件容易的事情。

8.主旨大意题。根据第一段内容,特别是“This increase in complexity, often called "feature creep," costs consumers time, but it also costs business money.”可知,“功能蔓延”不但消耗消费者的时间,而且还消耗企业的资金,由此可知,本段主要讲的是技术的“功能蔓延”造成的损失,故C项正确。

9.细节理解题。根据第二段中的“And marketing and sales departments see each additional feature as a new selling point, and a new way to attract customers.”可知,营销和销售人员把它看作一个新的卖点,一个吸引顾客的新方法,由此可知,“功能蔓延”给营销和销售人员带来福音,故C项正确。

10.细节理解题。根据第四段中的“We also overestimate our ability to figure out how a complicated product works.”可知,购买者高估了自己理解复杂产品工作原理的能力,也就是说他们对自己使用复杂产品的能力过于自信,故C项正确。

11.主旨大意题。通读全文,特别是根据第一段中的“so why is it that feature creep proves unstoppable?”可知,本文从设计者和消费者的角度介绍了科技的“功能蔓延”是不可阻挡的,拒绝“功能蔓延”不是一件容易的事情,故A项正确。

D

Anecdotal evidence has long held that creativity in artists and writers can be associated with living in foreign parts. Rudyard Kipling, Pablo Picasso, Ernest Hemingway, Paul Gauguin, Samuel Beckett and others spent years living abroad. Now a pair of psychologist has proven that there is indeed a link.

As they report in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, William Maddux of INSEAD, a business school in Fontainebleau, France, and Adam Galinsky, of the Kellogg School of Management in Chicago, presented 155 American business students and 55 foreign ones studying in America with a test used by psychologists as a measure of creativity Given a candle, some matches and a box of drawing pins, the students were asked to attach the candle to a cardboard wall so that no wax would drip on the floor when the candle was lit. (The solution is to use the box as a candleholder and fix it to the wall with the pin.) They found 60% of the students who were either living abroad or had spent some time doing so, solved the problem, whereas only 42% of those who had not lived abroad did so.

A follow-up study with 72 Americans and 36 foreigners explored their creative negotiating skills. Pairs of students were asked to play the role of seller of a petrol station who then needed to get a job and a buyer who would need to hire staff to run the business. The two were likely to reach a deadlock because the buyer had been told he could not afford what the seller was told was his minimum price. Nevertheless, when both negotiators had lived abroad 70 % struck a deal in which the seller was offered a management job at the petrol station in return for a lower asking price. When neither of the negotiators had lived abroad, none was able to reach a deal.

Merely travelling abroad, however, was not enough. You do have to live there. Packing your beach towel and suntan lotion will not, by itself make you Hemingway.

12.What is the purpose of mentioning the famous names in the opening paragraph?

A. To show the relationship between creativity and living abroad.

B. To indicate the link between artistic creation and life experience.

C. To emphasize how great these artists are.

D. To impress the importance of creativity.

13.What can be inferred from the text?

A.William Maddux and Adam Galinsky have carefully designed the test.

B.Negotiators who had lived abroad are more flexible in negotiating.

C.American business students are less creative than those oversea students.

D.One's creativity is associated with the length one has spent abroad.

14.What does the author mean in the last sentence of paragraph 4?

A.There exist sharp differences between travelling and living abroad.

B.You shouldn't lie on the beach when travelling.

C.Only real experience of living abroad can help drive creativity.

D.Living abroad is more meaningful than just travelling abroad.

15.Where is the text most likely from?

A. A diary. B. A magazine. C. A novel. D.A guidebook.

【答案】12.A13.B14.C15.B

【解析】本文是一篇说明文,介绍了研究发现国外生活可以提升创造力。

12.推理判断题。根据第一段中的“Anecdotal evidence has long held that creativity in artists and writers can be associated with living in foreign parts.”可知,长期以来,坊间证据表明,艺术家和作家的创造力可能与生活在外国有关,接下来提到那些著名的人物就是为了证明这一点,即:展示创造力和海外生活之间的关系,故A项正确。

13.推理判断题。根据倒数第二段中的“when both negotiators had lived abroad 70 % struck a deal in which the seller was offered a management job at the petrol station in return for a lower asking price.”可知,当谈判的双方都在国外居住时,70%的人达成了协议,由此可知,在国外生活过的谈判者在谈判中更灵活,故B项正确。

14.推理判断题。根据第四段中的“Merely travelling abroad, however, was not enough. You do have to live there.”可知,然而,仅仅出国旅游是不够的(不能提升创造力),你必须住在那里,由此可知作者说这句话的意思是只有在国外居住才能提升创造力,故C项正确。

15.推理判断题。通读全文可知,心理学家通过研究发现国外生活可以提升创造力,这属于科学研究范畴,最有可能出现在杂志的科学研究版块,故B项正确。

本篇第3题的难度较大,抓住上文介绍的创造力和海外生活之间的关系是关键——心理学家通过研究发现国外生活可以提升创造力,因此此处作者是说仅仅出国旅游是不够的,你必须在那里居住才能提升创造力。

【湖南省长沙市第一中学2020届高三第一次月考】阅读下列短文,从毎题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。

A

Theater Listing Guide

Check out the latest shows in London theaters with our handy theater listing guide! You can either purchase tickets at the theatre or online at https :// www. londontheatre. co. uk/ whats-on.

Chicago, Phoenix Theatre

Chicago, the longest-running American musical in Broadway history, has delighted audiences around the world. The main characters are two female criminals. You must be 18 or older to purchase a ticket.

Kinky Boots , Adelphi Theatre

Based on the successful 2005 British film by Geoff Deane and Tim Firth, this musical celebration is about the belief that you can change the world when you change your mind. Fans of musical comedy won't want to miss this fabulous show, as the songs in the musical were produced by Grammy and Tony winning pop icon Cyndi Lauper. No children younger than 6 will be admitted. Children under 3 are tree except in reserved seating.

King Lear, Duke of York's Theatre

Acting legend Sir Ian McKellen starred the title character in King Lear, one of Shakespeare's famous tragedies. McKellen's performance in the play, which sees King Lear become mad as he divides his kingdom amongst his children, was highly praised by critics and audiences. You must be 12 or older to enter the theatre.

Les Miserables . Queen's Theatre

Adapted from the epic novel by Victor Hugo, the musical tells a powerful and moving story of love, sacrifice, passion and revolutionary spirit. In October 2015 Les Miserables celebrated its 30th Anniversary in London and is now the world's longest-running musical. It is recommended for children aged 7 or over, and children under 5 are prohibited.

1. Who is the composer of the musical Kinky Boots?

A. Cyndi Lauper. B. Sir Ian McKellen.

C. Grammy and Tony. D. Geoff Deane and Tim Firth.

2. Which show is the longest-running musical in the world?

A. Chicago. B. Kinky Boots.

C. King Lear. D. Les Miserables.

3. What can we infer about the shows mentioned in the passage?

A. The shows are musicals.

B. The shows are adapted from ancient stories.

C. The audiences should buy the tickets online in advance.

D. The audiences should check the age policy before buying the tickets.

 

【答案】1.A2.D3.D

【解析】这是一篇说明文。文章介绍了四个剧院最新节目的情况。

1.细节理解题。根据Kinky Boots , Adelphi Theatre部分Fans of musical comedy won't want to miss this fabulous show, as the songs in the musical were produced by Grammy and Tony winning pop icon Cyndi Lauper.(音乐喜剧的粉丝们可不想错过这场精彩的演出,因为音乐剧中的歌曲都是由格莱美奖得主和托尼奖得主Cyndi Lauper创作的。)可知Kinky Boots的作曲家是Cyndi Lauper。故选A。

2.细节理解题。根据Les Miserables . Queen's Theatre部分中In October 2015 Les Miserables celebrated its 30th Anniversary in London and is now the world's longest-running musical.(2015年10月,《悲惨世界》在伦敦庆祝了30周年,现在是世界上播放时间最长的音乐剧。)可知Les Miserables是世界上播放时间最长的音乐剧。故选D。

3.推理判断题。根据四个剧院都有关于年龄的规定,如Chicago, Phoenix Theatre中You must be 18 or older to purchase a ticket.(你必须年满18岁才能买票。);Kinky Boots , Adelphi TheatreChildren under 3 are free except in reserved seating. (3岁以下儿童免费,但预留座位除外。);King Lear, Duke of York's Theatre中You must be 12 or older to enter the theatre.(你必须年满12岁才能进入剧院。);Les Miserables . Queen's Theatre中It is recommended for children aged 7 or over, and children under 5 are prohibited.(建议7岁以上儿童观看,5岁以下儿童禁看。)可知观众在买票前应检查年龄政策。故选D。

细节理解题解题方法

细节理解题属直接解答性问题,是阅读理解题中最简单的一种,多数属中低难度的题。但高考所占的比例大,应特别引起注意。事实和细节题的命题特点是:对文章或某一段落中的一些特定细节或文章重要事实的理解,一般包括直接理解题和语义转化题。直接理解题能在原文直接找到答案,而语义转化题则需要将题目信息与原文信息加工或整理后才能得出结论。

做细节理解题具体方法与步骤如下:

1.略读材料,大概了解原文,掌握中心或主旨。经常有新技术对将来人们工作和生活不良影响的预测,但事实证明结果并不是那样,我们有必要否定预测,以减少人们的恐惧。

2.按文章的体裁,作者写作的组织模式及有关的信息词。如for example, first, second…等预测应该到何处寻找自己所需要的事实。

3.将精力放在寻找你所需要的细节上。快速通篇跳读,全文扫视,找到细节出处,待找到含细节句子时,放慢速度,仔细核对比较内容,直至找到答案。

如第二小题,根据Les Miserables . Queen's Theatre部分中In October 2015 Les Miserables celebrated its 30th Anniversary in London and is now the world's longest-running musical.(2015年10月,《悲惨世界》在伦敦庆祝了30周年,现在是世界上播放时间最长的音乐剧。)可知Les Miserables是世界上播放时间最长的音乐剧。故选D。

B

People speak English in different parts of the world. The same words can be used in different ways, depending on where you live. People can also have completely different ways of saying the same thing.

1'he Oxford English Dictionary(OED) is asking the public to help it add new words. Editors want to find the regional differences in English around the world. They want to expand its record of the language.

Last year, the OED, BBC Radio and the Forward Arts Foundation teamed up to find local words in the United Kingdom. It resulted in more than 100 regional words and phrases being added to the dictionary. One was "cuddy wifter", which means a left-handed person.

Now, the OED is widening its search to English speakers around the world. Eleanor Maier, an editor at OED. said the response has been great. Editors are listing a bunch of suggestions to include in the dictionary.

These include Hawaii's "hammajang", which means "in a disorderly state". Another is the word for a swimming costume, "dookers" or "duckcrs". It is used in Scotland.

The OED also might include the word "frog-drowner", which Americans might use to describe a downpour of rain. Another possibility is "brick". It means “very cold" to people in New Jersey and New York City.

The dictionary has already found that, depending on location, a picture hanging off center might be described as "agley". It might also be called "catawampous" or "ahoo".

"The OED aims to cover all types of English," Maier said. That includes scientific words, slang and regional language. Maier also said that it can be difficult for the OED's editors to identify regional words. The terms are more often spoken than written down.

The appeal is called Words Where You Are. It is looking for more suggestions. uWe were surprised and pleased by the number of regional words wc were able to include," said Maier.

4. "Freezing" is closest in meaning to " ',.

A. hammajang B. dookcrs

C. brick D. ahoo

5. Which local word of the following is most likely from regions of the United Kingdom?

A. aglcy  B. frog-drowncr  C. cuddy wiftcr D. brick

6. What can be inferred from the passage?

A. It is challenging to create a complete collection of regional words.

B. People are not committed to responding to the appeal for regional words.

C. People use regional words only when they are home or with close friends.

D. Having an understanding of regional words can be helpful when communicating.

7. Which of the following can best summarize the main idea of the passage?

A. It's time to trace the source of local words.

B. The same English words can be used to say different things.

C. Oxford Dictionary aims to enlarge its collection to appeal to locals.

D. Oxford Dictionary will include more regional words from around the globe.

【答案】4.C5.C6.A7.D

【解析】这是一篇说明文。牛津英语词典要求公众帮助它添加新词。编辑们想要发现世界各地英语的地域差异。他们想扩大该语言的记录。牛津词典将收录更多来自世界各地的地域性词汇。

4.推理判断题。根据第六段中Another possibility is "brick". It means “very cold" to people in New Jersey and New York City.(另一种可能性是“brick”。对新泽西州和纽约市的人来说,它的意思是“非常冷”。)可知“Freezing(极冷的)”的意思和brick意思最接近。故选C。

5.细节理解题。根据第三段中It resulted in more than 100 regional words and phrases being added to the dictionary. One was "cuddy wifter", which means a left-handed person.(该词典收录了100多个地区词汇和短语。一个是“cuddy wifter”,意思是左撇子。)可知cuddy wifter最有可能来自英国地区。故选C。

6.推理判断题。倒数第二段中Maier also said that it can be difficult for the OED's editors to identify regional words.(迈尔还说,对《牛津英语词典》的编辑来说,要识别地区性词汇是很困难的。)可知创建一个完整的区域性词汇集合是很有挑战性的。故选A。

7.主旨大意题。根据第二段The Oxford English Dictionary(OED) is asking the public to help it add new words. Editors want to find the regional differences in English around the world. They want to expand its record of the language.(牛津英语词典(OED)要求公众帮助它添加新词。编辑们想要发现世界各地英语的地域差异。他们想扩大该语言的记录。)以及文章主要内容可推断文章围绕牛津词典将收录更多来自世界各地的地域性词汇展开。故选D。

C

On September 11, 2001, I was in the second week of the new school year with my senior English class at T. C. Williams High School just a few miles south of the Pentagon.

Suddenly that morning, a colleague who grew up in New York, opened the classroom door and said, "Turn on the TV the World Trade Center has just been hit by a plane. " I've always believed in never letting school get in the way of my students' education. I switched on the TV in front of the room, and my students and I listened to the announcers make a guess about what had happened——only to see the second plane hit. At first, the sight of the towers burning didn't seem to have much more immediacy (紧迫性)than a TV action movie. Soon, however, things in that classroom would get far too immediate.

In what seemed like about a half-hour after the second plane hit, we heard a loud explosion outside the school. Several students were shocked and I told them not to worry, saying that "it was just a car backfiring". A moment later a boy sitting near the windows said, "That's no car; look at that black smoke." We could see an enormous plume of smoke rising in the distance, but didn't know where it was coming from until, a few seconds later, the NBC reporter stationed at the Pentagon broke into the New York coverage to say that he felt the ground shake beneath him as he heard an explosion—obviously the same one that had just surprised my students. It was several minutes before it was announced that the explosion came from a plane hitting the Pentagon.

At that point, a boy a football player suddenly came undone and had to be comforted by the girls in the class. His mom worked in the Pentagon, and when he tried to get her on his cellphone he could not get through.

Reports vastly overestimated the number of deaths in the Pentagon. Some reports were estimating over 800 dead when the actual death toll at the Pentagon was 125.

8. The author was working as on September 11, 2001.

A. a security guard        B. a teacher in a school

C. a TV reporter for NBC D. an officer in the Pentagon

9. What can be inferred from the second paragraph?

A. Another plane hit the Pentagon before the author turned on the TV.

B. The author thought the hit got in the way of his students' education.

C. The author's colleague forced him and his students to watch the TV report.

D. The author believed that there exists something deserving attention besides school.

10. Which of the following is TRUE based on the third paragraph?

A. The boy sitting near the windows witnessed the hit.

B. The author tried to comfort his students by telling them the truth.

C. The loud explosion was caused by the plane hitting the Pentagon.

D. The author realized the Pentagon was hit immediately he heard the loud explosion.

11. What does the author mean by mentioning the football player suddenly came undone?

A. The football player lost self-control as he was unable to contact his mum.

B. The football player felt at a loss as his mum left without saying good-bye.

C. The football player was terrified when a car crashed against the school gate.

D. The football player exploded with anger since he was forbidden to use his cell phone.

【答案】8.B9.D10.C11.A

【解析】这是一篇记叙文。记叙了作者在一所学校作老师时经历的2001年9月11日当天“911事件”发生时的经历。

8.推理判断题。根据第一段On September 11, 2001, I was in the second week of the new school year with my senior English class at T. C. Williams High School just a few miles south of the Pentagon.(2001年9月11日,我在新学年的第二周,在五角大楼以南几英里的T.C.威廉姆斯高中上英语四年级。)以及第二段中I've always believed in never letting school get in the way of my students' education.(我一直认为,永远不要让学校妨碍我的学生的教育。)可知作者2001年9月11日,作者在一所学校教书。故选B。

9.推理判断题。根据第二段中I switched on the TV in front of the room, and my students and I listened to the announcers make a guess about what had happened——only to see the second plane hit.(我打开了房间前面的电视,我和我的学生们听着播音员猜测发生了什么事——结果只看到第二架飞机撞上了。)可知作者听了同事的话打开了电视,可知作者认为除了学校之外,还有一些值得注意的事情。故选D。

10.细节理解题。由We could see an enormous plume of smoke rising in the distance, but didn't know where it was coming from until, a few seconds later, the NBC reporter stationed at the Pentagon broke into the New York coverage to say that he felt the ground shake beneath him as he heard an explosion—obviously the same one that had just surprised my students.可知作者和他的学生在飞机撞向五角大楼后,起初还以为是汽车发动机的声音。接着才看到升起的浓烟,然后派驻五角大楼的新闻记者报道证实五角大楼被撞。可知巨大的爆炸声是由飞机撞击五角大楼引起的。故选C。

11.推理判断题。由第四段His mom worked in the Pentagon, and when he tried to get her on his cellphone he could not get through.(他的母亲在五角大楼工作,当他试图用手机联系她时,却打不通。)可知那个足球运动员失去了自控力,因为他无法联系他的妈妈。故选A。

推理判断题要求考生在理解原文表面文字信息的基础上,做出一定的判断和推理,从而得出文章的隐含意义和深层意义。推理判断题属于主观性较强的高层次阅读理解题,做这类题目时,同学们应严格依据作者所陈述的细节、事实以及作者的措词、态度和语气等,找出能够表露作者思想倾向和感情色彩的词语,然后利用自己已获得的相关知识进行推理判断,从而得出符合逻辑的结论。以本文第一小题为例,根据第一段On September 11, 2001, I was in the second week of the new school year with my senior English class at T. C. Williams High School just a few miles south of the Pentagon.(2001年9月11日,我在新学年的第二周,在五角大楼以南几英里的T.C.威廉姆斯高中上英语四年级。)以及第二段中I've always believed in never letting school get in the way of my students' education.(我一直认为,永远不要让学校妨碍我的学生的教育。)可知作者2001年9月11日,作者是一位老师,在一所学校教书。故选B。

【内蒙古自治区鄂尔多斯市一中2019—2020学年高三上学期9月月考】阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。

A

    Housekeeping Services - A responsible, professional,experienced housekeeper is needed to take care of all cleaning details of a local business in Angwin. This person will be needed 2 or 3 times per week for about 8 hours per day. Please send an email for additional information and be ready to provide resume and work history. Driver’s license and the ability to lift at least 50 pounds are required. Pay will be $20-$25 per hour. To contact them,email recruitingangwin@gmail.com.

    Caregiver Position-Looking for a caregiver to help with a 91-year-old woman who lives in Calistoga. She speaks both English and Spanish, but Spanish is her preference. She sleeps quite a bit during the day so there is time to do housework. She cannot be left alone because she is a fall risk. She walks with a walker on her own. Please call 925-785-8500 if interested.

     Worship Music Leader -- First Presbyterian Church (FPC) in Napa is looking for someone who will select songs and use media for church services on Sundays. Applicants must be able to commit 8-10 hours per week for service and meetings as well as being available every Sunday from 9:00am to 12:00 pm. The pay is about $18 an hour. Detailed job information will be posted on the Payroll Office’s window. If interested,send your cover letter and resume to David Stoker at david@fpcnapa.org.

     Catering Company Oak Avenue is a most successful catering company in St. Helena searching for enthusiastic people to join their talented team of chefs and service professionals. Hours are flexible and positions are available for ambitious chefs,bakers,service helpers,and captains. Please send a brief cover letter and resume to Maritza@oakavenuecatering.com or call 707-963-9278 for more information.

1. To work as a housekeeper, one needs to   .

A.be a local in Angwin          B.be able to speak two languages

C.work about 8 hours per week    D.be able to drive

2. Why does the 91-year-old woman need to be accompanied?

A.She cannot walk by herself.     B.She has a poor memory.

C.She is likely to fall down.          D.She has difficulty in sleeping.

3. Which is the contact number or email address for those who want to become great bakers?

A.707-963-9278     B.925-785-8500

C.david@fpcnapa.org D.recruitingangwin@gmail.com

【答案】1.D2.C3.A

【解析】本文是一篇应用文,介绍了几条招工信息。

1.细节理解题。根据第一段中的“Driver’s license and the ability to lift at least 50 pounds are required.”可知,要想做管家,必须要会开车,故D项正确。

2.细节理解题。根据第二段中的“She cannot be left alone because she is a fall risk.”可知,这位91的老太太需要有人护理是因为她走路有摔倒的危险,故C项正确。

3.细节理解题。根据最后一段中的“Catering Company Oak Avenue is a most successful catering company in St. Helena searching for enthusiastic people to join their talented team of chefs and service professionals.”可知,奥克大道餐饮公司是圣海伦娜地区最成功的餐饮公司,现诚聘有志之士加入其优秀的厨师和专业服务团队,其联系电话是707-963-9278,因此想要成为出色的面包师应该拨打707-963-9278,故A项正确。

 

B

     We’ve all had cases where we’ve waited just a bit too long to pay an electric bill or  speeding ticket. But one man, from California by reasonable assumption,who goes by “Dave”,recently took procrastination (拖延) one step further, by paying a parking ticket almost a half-century after it was given.

    In December 2018, the Minersville Police Department in Pennsylvania received a letter in the mail. Whoever wrote the letter decided it was best to keep his name somewhat unknown,so he put the return address as “Wayward Road,Anytown California” under the name “Feeling guilty”.

     When the officers opened the envelope,they found a brief letter, along with a $5 bill, and a parking ticket dating all the way back to 1974. The note read,“Dear PD,I've been carrying this ticket around for 40 plus years always intending to pay. Forgive me if I don't give you my info. With respect,Dave.”

    Even though the initial parking ticket was only for $2, “Dave” must have felt awfully guilty because he left 150 percent,or $3, in interest.

     Michael Combs, the Police Chief of the Minersville Police Department, stated in an interview that the same ticket would cost about $20 if it were given today. Combs went on to share that the original ticket from 1974 was given to a vehicle that had an Ohio license plate.

     Because there was no system for tracking tickets given to out-of-state cars back then,“Dave” could have gotten away with never paying the $2 fine. But apparently,guilt got the best of him,and he decided to finally cough up the money more than 40 years past its due date.

4. How much do we know about “Dave”?

A. He lives in Wayward Road,Anytown California.

B. His car probably came from Ohio at that time.

C. The police are trying to find out more about him.

D. “Dave” is of course the man’s real name indeed.

5. Why didn’t “Dave” pay for the parking ticket until recently?

A. He completely forgot about it in the past 44 years.

B. He didn’t find it until almost half a century later.

C. He didn’t pay for it just because of procrastination. 

D. He failed to find out who he should pay the money to. 

6. What drove “Dave” to pay for the parking ticket at last?

A. A strong sense of guilt.

B. Fear of being tracked by the police.

C. Worry about being fined more.

D. Sudden change of his financial situation.

7. Which of the following can be the best title?

A. Police Chief of the Minersville Police Department Shares a Story

B. Parking Ticket Carried Around for Almost Half a Century from Ohio 

C. Unusual Letter Comes from Wayward Road, Anytown California

D. Mysterious Procrastinator Finally Pays 44-Year-Old Parking Ticket

【答案】4.B5.C6.A7.D

【解析】本文是一篇记叙文,讲述了一位神秘的拖延者最近终于支付了44年前的停车费。

4.细节理解题。根据倒数第二段中的“the original ticket from 1974 was given to a vehicle that had an Ohio license plate”可知,Dave的车的车牌号是俄亥俄州的,故B项正确。

5.细节理解题。根据第一段中的“We’ve all had cases where we’ve waited just a bit too long to pay an electric bill or  speeding ticket. But one man, from California by reasonable assumption,who goes by “Dave”,recently took procrastination (拖延) one step further”可知,我们都有拖延交电费或罚单的情况,但Dave把这种拖延发挥到了极致,由此可知,Dave直到最近才支付44年前的停车费纯粹是因为拖延,故C项正确。

6.细节理解题。根据最后一段中的“But apparently,guilt got the best of him”可知,是强烈的罪恶感驱使Dave支付了停车费,故A项正确。

7.主旨大意题。通读全文可知,本文讲述了一位不愿透漏姓名的男子因为爱拖延最近才支付44年前的停车费,故D项正确。

C

     “Birds” and “airports” are two words that, paired together,don’t normally paint the most harmonious picture. So it really raises some eyebrows when China announces plans to build an airport that is for birds.

     Described as the world’s first-ever bird airport, the proposed Lingang Bird Sanctuary(保护区)in the northern coastal city of Tianjin is, of course,not an actual airport. Rather,it's a wetland preserve specifically designed to accommodate hundreds-even thousands-of daily takeoffs and landings by birds traveling along the East Asian-Australian Flyway. Over 50 species of migratory (迁徙的)water birds,some endangered, will stop and feed at the protected sanctuary before continuing their long journey along the flyway.

    Located on a former landfill site,the 150-acre airport is also open to human travelers.(Half a million visitors are expected annually.) However,instead of duty-free shopping,the main attraction for non-egg-laying creatures at Tianjin’s newest airport will be a green-roofed education and research center, a series of raised “observation platforms” and a network of scenic walking and cycling paths totaling over 4 miles.

    “The proposed Bird Airport will be a globally significant sanctuary for endangered migratory bird species, while providing new green lungs for the city of Tianjin.” Adrian McGregor of an Australian landscape architecture firm explained of the design. Frequently blanketed in smog so thick that it has shut down real airports, Tianjin is a city---China’s fourth most populous----that would certainly benefit from a new pair of healthy green lungs•

8. The underlined phrase “non-egg-laying creatures” in Paragraph 3 refers to?

A. Visitors. B. Designers. C. Endangered water birds. D. Planes.

9. What do we know about the airport according to the passage?

A.People cannot watch birds up close here.

B. It is located on a 150-acre landfill site.

C.It functions as an actual airport and a wetland preserve.

D. It provides migratory birds with food and shelter.

10. What can we infer from the last paragraph?

A.The airport will become a permanent home for birds.

B. Tianjin will win worldwide fame in the future.

C. Tianjin’s air quality will improve thanks to the airport.

D. Tianjin will be able to accommodate more people.

11. What is this passage mainly about?

A.Airports shut down and open up.

B.China is to open the first Bird Airport.

C.Airports turn into green lungs.

D. Birds are no longer enemies to airports.

【答案】8.A9.D10.C11.B

【解析】本文是一篇新闻报道,主要介绍了中国将在天津建立鸟儿机场保护区的计划以及具体规划内容和其重大意义。

8.词义猜测题。根据画线词前的“instead of duty-free shopping”及画线词后的“a green-roofed education and research center, a series of raised “observation platforms” and a network of scenic walking and cycling paths totaling over 4 miles.”可知,天津鸟儿机场保护区对游客的主要吸引力将是一个绿色屋顶的教育和研究中心,观赏台以及一个总长超过4英里的风景优美的步行道和自行车道网络,而不是免税购物,由此可知画线词词义为“游客”,故A项正确。

9.细节理解题。根据第二段中的“Over 50 species of migratory (迁徙的)water birds,some endangered, will stop and feed at the protected sanctuary before continuing their long journey along the flyway.”可知,迁徙的候鸟可以在机场保护区停留和吃东西,然后继续飞行,故D项正确。

10.推理判断题。根据最后一段中的“The proposed Bird Airport will be a globally significant sanctuary for endangered migratory bird species, while providing new green lungs for the city of Tianjin.”及“Tianjin is a city---China’s fourth most populous----that would certainly benefit from a new pair of healthy green lungs”可知,天津的空气质量和环境会因为这个鸟儿机场保护区得到很大的改善,故C项正确。

11.主旨大意题。通读全文,特别是根据第二段中的“Described as the world’s first-ever bird airport, the proposed Lingang Bird Sanctuary(保护区)in the northern coastal city of Tianjin is, of course,not an actual airport.”可知,本文主要介绍了中国将在天津建立鸟儿机场保护区的计划以及具体规划内容和其重大意义,故B项正确。

词义猜测题的难度较大,对画线词上下文的理解是关键,例如本篇第1题,根据画线词前的“instead of duty-free shopping”及画线词后的“a green-roofed education and research center, a series of raised “observation platforms” and a network of scenic walking and cycling paths totaling over 4 miles.”可知,免税购物、绿色屋顶的教育和研究中心、观赏台以及风景优美的步行道和自行车道网络都是为了吸引游客而设计的,由此可知画线词词义为“游客”。

D

     Brriiinnng. The alarm clock announces the start of another busy weekday in the morning. You jump out of bed, rush into the shower,into your clothes and out the door with hardly a moment to think. A stressful journey to work gets your blood pressure climbing. Once at the  office, you glance through the newspaper with depressing stories or reports of disasters. In that sort of  mood,who can get down to work, particularly some creative,original problem-solving work?

    The way most of us spend our mornings is exactly opposite to the conditions that promote flexible,open-minded thinking. Imaginative ideas are most likely to come to us when we’re unfocused. If you are one of those energetic morning people, your most inventive time comes in the early evening when your are relaxed. Sleepy people’s lack of focus leads to an increase in creative problem solving. By not giving yourself time to tune into your wandering mind, you’re missing out on the surprising solutions it may offer. The trip you take to work doesn’t help, either. The stress slows down the speed with which signals travel between neurons(神经细胞),making inspirations less likely to occur. And while we all should read a lot about what’s going on in the world,it would not make you feel good for sure, so put that news website or newspaper aside until after the day’s work is done.

    So what would our mornings look like if we wanted to start them with a full capacity for creative problem solving? We’d set the alarm a few minutes early and lie awake in bed,following our thoughts where they lead. We'd stand a little longer under the warm water of the shower,stopping thinking about tasks in favor of a few more minutes of relaxation. We,d take some deep breaths on our way to work, instead of complaining about heavy traffic. And once in the office —we’d click on links not to the news of the day but to the funniest videos the web has to offer.

12.According to the author, we are more creative when we are______.

A. focused B. awake C.relaxed D. busy

13. What does the author imply about newspapers?

A. They are solution providers.

B. They are normally full of bad news. 

C. They are a source of inspiration.

D. They are more educational than websites.

14. By “tune into your wandering mind” (in Para. 2),the author means “    ”.

A. wander into the wild                 B. listen to a beautiful tune

C. switch to the traffic channel           D. stop concentrating on anything

15. What does the author intend to do in the last paragraph?

A. To offer practical suggestions.

B. To summarize past experiences.

C. To advocate diverse ways of life.

D. To set up a routine for the future.

【答案】12.C13.B14.D15.A

【解析】本文是一篇说明文,介绍了人在注意力不集中的情况下最有创造性,并给出了一些让我们更有创造性的建议。

12.细节理解题。根据第二段中的“your most inventive time comes in the early evening when you are relaxed.”可知,作者认为在放松的情况下,人们更具创造性,故C项正确。

13.推理判断题。根据第一段中的“you glance through the newspaper with depressing stories or reports of disasters. In that sort of  mood,who can get down to work”可知,报纸上有很多负面新闻,它们会影响我们的情绪,故B项正确。

14.推理判断题。根据第二段中的“Imaginative ideas are most likely to come to us when we’re unfocused.”可知,在注意力分散的时候,人是最有创造性的,会有很多创造性的想法出现。那么这句话意为:如果我们不给时间去调整思绪,我们就会错过解决问题的好方法,所以作者说调整思绪的意思就是不要把注意力集中在某个事情上,故D项正确。

15.推理判断题。文章最后一段给出了很多的建议,都是关于如何让我们在早晨更有创造性的,由此可知作者想在最后一段提供一些切实可行的建议,故A项正确。

【吉林省梅河口市第五中学等校2020届高三上学期8月联考】读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。

A

Best Way to Save Money

Although the best way to save money can vary from person to person, depending on age, family size and other characteristics, there are still some easy things that all shoppers can do to keep more money in their bank accounts.

Avoid Impulse (冲动的) Purchases

When you shop, a best way to save money is to have a plan in mind to help you avoid impulse purchases. For instance, you might leave your credit cards at home and only carry the exact amount of cash that you will need for your planned purchase. Some shoppers agree to discuss any purchases over a certain dollar amount with their spouses (配偶) first, ‘

Know When to Pay for Quality

Sometimes the best way to save money in the long term is to spend a little more money right now. A good piece of furniture can stay in the family for decades. A high-quality pair of shoes will last longer than a bargain pair and prevent foot pain. Leaner cuts of meat and organic produce provide health benefits for your family.

Buy Secondhand

Check classified ads, thrift stores and garage sales for used clothing, toys, furniture, and much more available at a part of their original cost. For the most secondhand savings, check out groups like Freecycle where members offer unwanted items for free to anyone willing to pick them up.

Borrow Instead of Buy

If you’re only going to use something once, try to borrow it instead of spending your money on it. Borrow a tool from your neighbor. Swap books with a friend. Check out the resources at your local library. You’ll also be reducing disorder in your home.

1. What should you do to avoid buying unplanned things?

A. Think twice before you buy. B. Ask if you really need them.

C. Turn to your friends for help. D. Never take extra money with you.

2. What’s the biggest benefit of buying secondhand goods?

A. It is cheap. B. It is convenient. C. It is fun. D. It costs nothing.

3. Which of the following tips ensures you to get items for free?

A. Avoid Impulse Purchases. B. Know When to Pay for Quality.

C. Borrow Instead of Buy. D. Buy Secondhand.

【答案】1.D2.A3.C

【解析】这是一篇说明文。尽管省钱的最佳方式因人而异,取决于年龄、家庭规模和其他特征,但仍然有一些简单的事情是所有购物者都可以做的,以便在银行账户上存更多的钱。文章介绍了省钱的最好方法。

1.细节理解题。根据第一个小标题的第二句 only carry the exact amount of cash that you will need for your planned purchase可知,购物时,别带多余的钱,就能避免冲动购物。故选D。

2.细节理解题。根据第三个小标题的第一句 at a part of their original cost可知,买二手货的最大好处是便宜。故选A。

3.推理判断题。根据第四个小标题的内容可知,如果你只用一次的东西,不必花钱去买,可以借用。故选C。

B

Edward Latter, five, thought his dog Morse was gone for ever after cruel thieves took him away when the dog escaped from his home.

The 10-month-old dog had been missing since December and the broken-hearted boy even wrote a heartbreaking letter to Santa and posted it to Lapland asking for his pal back for Christmas.

A £10,000 reward was offered by millionaire Simon Cowell after he read about the horrific theft. Cowell said: “It’s heartbreaking to see a little boy’s Christmas ruined. Dogs are so important to many of us. We just hope it helps lead to the safe return of Morse.”

His parents, Amanda Hopkins and Richard Latter, had given up hope of ever seeing their pet again, until they got a call on Friday night. A couple 20 miles away from their home in Marden, Kent, had found a muddy dog walking through their street and thought it could be missing Morse. They brought the Morse in, washed him, and then called Mr Latter who was unsure until he was sent a photo, and then drove the family to the village of Meopham.

The theatre carpenter, 40, said: “Amanda and I were still quite sceptical, but Edward saw him and recognised him straight away. He was absolutely over the moon. He said: ‘I can’t believe it, I have my best friend back. It’s too late for Christmas but this is the best present ever.’ We were still unsure if it was him though—as he wasn’t responding to his name or coming to us.”

“We spent about an hour and half over there and we still were not sure, so we took him home to get his chip scanned. It was only when we took him to the vets on Saturday morning and got his chip scanned that we found out for sure. We instantly broke down in tears. We were just hugging each other, hugging Edward and hugging the dog.” Added Richard.

The family who found missing Morse said they hadn’t yet heard from Simon Cowell about the £10,000 reward hut were happy to get him home.

4. Why did Edward Latter write to Santa?

A. He wanted Santa to punish the cruel thieves.

B. He wished Santa could bring Morse back for Christmas.

C. He hoped Santa would reward the person finding his dog.

D. He wished he could reunite with his parents for Christmas.

5. What does the underlined phrase ‘‘over the moon” in Paragraph 5 mean?

A. On the move. B. Outer space.

C. In high spirits. D. Beyond description.

6. Why did Richard Latter have the dog’s chip scanned?

A. To identify the dog.

B. To ensure the dog’s health.

C. To remind Edward Latter to hug the dog.

D. To get the reward millionaire Cowell had promised.

7. What can we learn from the text?

A. Edward Latter has got his lost Morse back.

B. Simon Cowell was accused of breaking his promise.

C. Santa brought Morse back for Edward Latter after Christmas.

D. The couple has received a reward of £10,000 from Mr Latter.

【答案】4.B5.C6.A7.A

【解析】本文是一篇记叙文。Edward Latter给圣诞老人写信是希望圣诞老人实现他的愿望:他的狗回来和他一起过圣诞节。最后Edward latter的确找回了他的狗。

4.细节理解题。根据第2段The 10-month-old dog had been missing since December and the broken-hearted boy even wrote a heartbreaking letter to Santa and posted it to Lapland asking for his pal back for Christmas.可知,Edward Latter给圣诞老人写信是希望圣诞老人实现他的愿望:他的狗回来和他一起过圣诞节。故选B。

5.词义推测题。根据上一句“... but Edward saw him and recognised him straight away.”可知, Edward Latter已经认出了Morse,他立即欣喜若狂。故选C。

6.细节理解题。根据倒数第2段第1句可知, Morse被带去扫描是为了弄清它是否是 Edward Latter丢失的狗。故选A。

7.推理判断题。根据倒数第2段第2句It was only when we took him to the vets on Saturday morning and got his chip scanned that we found out for sure. 可知, Edward latter的确找回了他的狗。故选A。

 

C

One night in 1966, Michael Chapman rushed into a folk-music club in Cornwall, England to get out of the rain, and soon found himself onstage playing the guitar.

“They offered me a job to play for the rest of the summer. And I’ve been playing ever since,” Chapman says. “I’ve told that story so many times, but it’s absolutely true. If it hadn’t been raining that night, I wouldn’t be talking to you.”

The British guitar player has spent the 50 years since then on the road. He released some praised albums in the 1970s, but his health went downhill in the 80s and 90s. Like a lot of British artists in the 1960s, Chapman taught himself to play the guitar by listening to American jazz and blues records.

Chapman actually taught photography, but quit when he was 26 to play music full time. When he was starting out, he was often compared to other British acoustic (原声的) guitar heroes of the time, like John Martyn and Bert Jansch.

“The fascinating thing about Michael Chapman is that he doesn’t fit in with those guys of his generation,” says Andrew Male, a music journalist. “He’s always- been an outsider. He never moved to London.”

And while he never became part of the London music scene, Chapman was noticed by those musicians. “The 70s caught up with him in the 80s,” Male says. “He had a huge heart attack at the end of the 80s that nearly finished him off. When he made his way back into the world in the early 90s, people had forgotten about him.”

But not everyone. A younger generation of musicians in America, including Thurston Moore of Sonic Youth and a younger singer and guitarist named Steve Gumi, recently rediscovered Chapman.

“We wanted to capture Michael’s voice and character where he is now. You know, it’s a little road-weary, but he still has it,” Gunn says. “For me, it was really important to get that right,” “He’s the right old musician for present times,” Male says. “I think the music he makes seems quite in tune with where we’re at.”

8. What word can best describe Michael Chapman’s first involvement in music?

A. Untrue. B. Accidental. C. Unfortunate. D. Reasonable.

9. What can we learn about the British guitarist John Martyn from the text?

A. He used to teach photography full time.

B. He cannot get along well with other musicians.

C. He may be very familiar with American jazz and blues.

D. He may be one of the best guitar players in the early 90s.

10. Why did Michael Chapman quit his music career once?

A. He lost his special voice.

B. He suffered from a severe heart attack.

C. He got tired of competing with others.

D. He was almost forgotten by everyone.

11. What can be the best title for the text?

A. The Rise and Fall of Guitar Music

B. The Sad Story of a Guitar Musician

C. A New Generation Helps an Old Guitar Musician

D. A Guitar Musician’s Back with the Help of a New Generation

【答案】8.B9.C10.B11.D

【解析】这是一篇记叙文。文章主要讲述了一位老艺术家在新一代艺术家的帮助之下,重新攀登音乐事业的高峰的故事。

8.推理判断题。根据第二段 If it hadn’t been raining that night, I wouldn’t be talking to you.”可推断, Michael Chapman走上音乐之路是出于偶然的机会。故选B。

9.推理判断题。根据第三段的最后一句“Like a lot of British artists in the1960s, Chapman taught himself to play the guitar by listening to American jazz and blues records”和第四段第二句“ When he was starting out, he was often compared to other British acoustic (原声的) guitar heroes of the time, like John Martyn and Bert Jansch”可推断, John Martyn作为那个年代的吉他艺术家,应该很熟悉美国的爵土乐及蓝调音乐。故选C。

10.细节理解题。根据第六段第三句和第四句“He had a huge heart at tack at the end of the80s that nearly finished him off. When he made his way back into the world in the early 90s, people had forgotten about him”可知, Michael Chapman中断他的音乐职业生涯是因为一次严重的心脏病发作。故选B。

11.主旨大意题。文章主要讲述了一位老艺术家在新一代艺术家的帮助之下,重新攀登音乐事业的高峰的故事。故选D。

在细节考查题中有一类事实细节题 。该题属于细节类型的阅读理解题,一般只针对某个特定的细节,题型可以多种多样。此类题型一般分两种。第一种是直接理解题,在原文中可以直接找到答案。第二种是词义转换题,正确选项是原文有关词语和句子的转换。做此类试题一定要抓住事件发生的时间、地点、人物、发展过程和结局等环节,所选答案一定要符合原文,切不可望文生义。本小题,根据第六段第三句和第四句“He had a huge heart at tack at the end of the8 Os that nearly finished him off. When he made his way back into the world in the early 90s, people had forgotten about him”可知, Michael Chapman中断他的音乐职业生涯是因为一次严重的心脏病发作。故选B。

D

Nasr Majid started hunting this fall at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (保护区)on the Eastern Shore of Maryland in USA, He’s one of the relatively few new hunters who officials hope will help stop a nearly four-decade decline nationally in what has become a hobby for fewer than 5 percent of Americans.

Natural resources and wildlife, officials in Maryland are encouraging hunting of deer, turkeys and some other wild animals, which is believed to be good for the environment. Without hunting, they say, sika deer will overpopulate the wildlife refuge and they’ll overeat the bushes and other plants that provide important habitat for birds. On the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay, hunting is also important to prevent the spread of diseases such as Lyme.

In many families, the hunting tradition has been handed down for generations^ But as longtime sportsmen age and children lose interest, the number of hunters in the United States fell by 2 million, from 2011 to 2018, to about 11 million.

“Everything is changing. Kids are growing up in front of video games and computers instead of going hunting.” said Chris Markin, a hunting specialist for the state natural resources department. “Adults usually focus on working and providing for their families. Those pressures are preventing many other potential hunters from going out, and from raising the next generation of hunters.”

To avoid such a decline, a new approach is needed. Government agencies and nonprofit groups are now launching mentoring (指导) programs to train more hunters, which not only helps preserve an industry and a culture but also means more protection for wildlife and their habitats through deer population control and investment.

Luckily, there are those still eager to learn, like Majid. He was just looking for an outdoor hobby he could share with his children when he came across the mentors-hip program. Now, he feels capable of hunting on his own, but also has someone he can text with questions that pop up. His new pastime has already paid off for him—on his second hunt with his mentor, in the last minutes of daylight, he bagged his first deer.

12. What can be inferred from Chris Markin’s words?

A. No one is interested in hunting any more.

B. Hunting adds to many adults’ life pressures.

C. Parents fail to spend enough time with kids.

D. The hunting tradition is facing challenges.

13. In this passage, Nasr Majid is considered as a symbol of ________. .

A. bravery B. hope C. enthusiasm D. devotion D.devotion

14. What does the underlined words “new pastime” refer to?

A. Learning to hunt. B. Raising questions.

C. Looking for hunters. D. Sharing a new hobby.

15. What does the text mainly tell us?

A. Teach hunters new skills. B. Preserve a great tradition.

C. Make hunting more popular. D. Reduce the pressure of life.

【答案】12.D13.B14.A15.C

【解析】这是一篇记叙文。本文主要介绍了 Nasr Majid在美国马里兰州东海岸黑水国家野生动物保护区狩猎,他是为数不多的几个新猎人之一,官员们希望他能帮助阻止近四十年来全国范围内的狩猎活动下降。

12.推理判断题。根据第四段中“Everything is changing. Kids are growing up in front of video games and computers instead of going hunting.”“Adults usually focus on working and providing for their families. Those pressures are preventing many other potential hunters from going out, and from raising the next generation of hunters.” 一切都是变化的。孩子们在电子游戏和电脑前长大,而不是去打猎。”“成年人通常专注于工作和养家糊口。这些压力阻碍了许多其他潜在猎人的外出,也阻碍了下一代猎人的成长。可知,狩猎传统正面临挑战。故选D。

13.细节理解题。根据第一段内容可知,今年秋天, Nasr Majid开始在美国马里兰州东海岸的黑水国家野生动物保护区狩猎,他是为数不多的几个新猎人之一,官员们希望他能帮助阻止近四十年来全国范围内的狩猎活动下降,由此可知, Nasr Majid被认为是希望的象征。故选B。

14.词义猜测题。根据画线词前“Luckily, there are those still eager to learn, like Majid. He was just looking for an outdoor hobby he could share with his children” 幸运的是,仍有一些人渴望学习,比如马吉德。

他只是想找一个可以和孩子们分享的户外爱好。可知,划线词的意思是“学习打猎。”故选A。

15.主旨大意题。通读全文,特别是根据第一段内容可知,本文主要介绍了 Nasr Majid在美国马里兰州东海岸黑水国家野生动物保护区狩猎,他是为数不多的几个新猎人之一,官员们希望他能帮助阻止近四十年来全国范围内的狩猎活动下降,故选C。

推理判断题要求在理解原文表面文字信息的基础上,做出一定的推理判断,从而得到文章的隐含意义和深层意义。推理判断题所涉及的内容可能是文中的某一句话,也可能是某几句话,所以,推理题的答案只能是根据原文表面文字信息一步推出的答案:即对原文某一句话或某几句话所作的同义改写或综合。推理判断题的题干中通常含infer,suggest,imply,conclude  indicate等标志性词语。 这种题型主要包括细节判断题、态度观点推断题、写作意图推断题、文章出处判断题和猜测想象推断题。本题第1小题,根据第四段中“Everything is changing. Kids are growing up in front of video games and computers instead of going hunting.”“Adults usually focus on working and providing for their families. Those pressures are preventing many other potential hunters from going out, and from raising the next generation of hunters.” 一切都是变化的。孩子们在电子游戏和电脑前长大,而不是去打猎。”“成年人通常专注于工作和养家糊口。这些压力阻碍了许多其他潜在猎人的外出,也阻碍了下一代猎人的成长。可知,狩猎传统正面临挑战。故选D。

【安徽省芜湖市第一中学2020届高三上学期基础检测】阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。

A

Here are some great people and their achievements.

Mary Anderson — windscreen wiper

Back on a freezing winter’s day in 1902, Mary Anderson was travelling by train through New York City. Snow was falling, forcing the driver to stop repeatedly and get out to clear it. Each time the door opened, Mary suffered a gust of sub-zero air. She had an idea: why not make some kind of a rubber blade that could be operated from inside the vehicle? And that’s exactly what she did.

Josephine Cochrane — dishwasher

The dishwasher dates back even earlier to the 19th century, and to the dinner parties thrown by a lady called Josephine Cochrane. As a frequent host, she wanted a machine that could wash dishes faster than people. Her response was to develop what was to become the first commercially successful dishwasher. Interestingly, innovation was in her blood: her grandfather had invented the steamboat.

Stephanie Kwolek — Kevlar

Kevlar is the lightweight fibre used in bulletproof vests. The material is used by millions every day and has saved countless lives. The super tough fabric is also used in objects ranging from gloves to airplanes. Incredibly, its strength-to-weight ratio (比强度) is five times higher than steel. Again, it was invented by a woman, the American chemist Stephanie Kwolek, in 1964.

Grace Hopper — first compiler (编译程序)

One of the most important inventions of the 20th century must surely be the computer programme. The world of programming is unbalanced in terms of gender. Men vastly outnumber women, and take home around 30% more pay than their female counterparts on average. But back in the 1940s and 1950s, women were at the forefront of this new field. Grace Hopper is credited with inventing the first compiler in 1952, which serves as the bridge between code and the binary (二进制的) ones and zeros understood by computers.

1. What do the inventions mentioned in the passage have in common?

A. Their inventors are all females.

B. They were all invented in the 19th century.

C. They were invented for the convenience of the inventors.

D. They were the most important inventions at their times.

2. What do we know about Josephine Cochrane?

A. She invented the dishwasher as well as the steamboat.

B. She was greatly inspired by her grandfather.

C. It troubled her a lot to wash dishes after parties.

D. She invented the dishwasher at the request of her guests.

3. What can be inferred from the passage?

A. Windscreen wipers came out earlier than dishwashers.

B. Mary Anderson’s invention saved countless drivers’ lives.

C. Grace Hopper is a pioneer in computer programme.

D. Kevlar is five times lighter than steel.

【答案】1.A2.C3.C

【解析】文章介绍了四位伟大女性以及她们的发明。

【小题1】细节理解题。根据前两位人物介绍中的人称代词she和第二位人物介绍中的Again, it was invented by a woman以及第四位人物介绍中的women were at the forefront of this new field. Grace Hopper is credited with inventing the first compiler in 1952可知,每个发明者都是女性。故A选项正确。

【小题2】推理判断题。由“As a frequent host, she wanted a machine that could wash dishes faster than people.”可知,她经常举行宴会,希望有一台可以快速洗盘子的机器。由此可以推知,宴会后洗盘子给她带来了很大麻烦。故C选项正确。

【小题3】推理判断题。由最后一段中的 “Grace Hopper is credited with inventing the first compiler in 1952...”可知,Grace Hopper于1952年发明了第一个编译程序。由此可知她是计算机编程方面的先驱。故C选项正确。

B

My six-year-old son, Stephen, was in front of the TV and smiled. His favorite show was about to begin---a Phoenix Suns basketball game.

“Ladies and gentlemen," the announcer’s voice was heard, “here is your starting lineup (首发阵容).” The arena (球场) darkened and the lights flashed when the players ran into the court to sing their team song. Stephen clapped and danced around. My wife Lorrie and I laughed. Stephen had been performing this for months. “One day I’m going to take you to a game, son,” I promised.

About a year later, the construction company where I worked finished a project for a Suns player. One afternoon my boss called me. “The player has two extra tickets for tonight’s game! Just pick them up at my office,” he said. I picked up the tickets, but felt a little disappointed when I looked at the clock. Even if I had had a helicopter, we would never have gone to the arena in time for the player introductions. Stephen would miss his favorite part! I grabbed my key, got Stephen in my car and hit the road. “Lord,” I prayed, “I’d love to see the joy on Stephen’s face. Help us make it on time.”

When I drove, it began to rain heavily. Suddenly, lightning flashed right near the arena! I turned on the radio to listen to the game. The announcer said there’d been a power failure at America West Arena. Everyone was fine, but there would be a delay until they got everything running. Finally, I parked the car and we walked in hurriedly to take our seats. I hoped that we hadn’t missed the introductions.

The very moment we entered the arena, the lights darkened. The music started. “Ladies and gentlemen, here’s your starting lineup!” Stephen’s eyes grew wide. There wasn’t enough space for him to dance around, but I could tell that his heart was leaping more than his body was able to. Thank heaven, he hadn’t missed a thing. And neither had I.

4. How did the author get the tickets?

A. His boss bought the tickets from a Suns player for him.

B. He bought the tickets from his boss.

C. His boss gave him the tickets as a reward for his work.

D. A Suns player offered the tickets for their work.

5. Why did the author feel disappointed when he got the tickets?

A. The game had already begun when he picked up the tickets.

B. The arena where the game would take place was too old.

C. It was too late for them to catch the beginning of the game.

D. He had no way to get a helicopter to take his son to the arena.

6. What might cause the delay of the game?

A. The arena was too wet and dirty after the heavy rain.

B. Lightning destroyed something at the arena.

C. The audience did not come to the arena on time.

D. The players came to the arena late because of the heavy rain.

7. What did the author mean by saying “And neither had I”?

A. He kept his promise to his son. B. He didn’t lose his job.

C. He didn’t miss a great match. D. He felt his son’s joy.

【答案】4.D5.C6.B7.A

【解析】本文是一篇记叙文。作者的儿子喜欢看菲尼克斯太阳队的比赛,而他最终有幸带孩子到现场观看。

4.细节理解题。根据第三段的the construction company where I worked finished a project for a Suns player…. The player has two extra tickets for tonight’s game! Just pick them up at my office,..

可知,作者所在的建筑公司为太阳队的一位队员完成了工程,该队员送给他们两张票,老板送给了作者。故选D。

5.细节理解题。根据第三段的...but felt a little disappointed when I looked al the clock...in time for the player introductions可知,作者看了看时间怕赶不上开场介绍,感到些许沮丧。故选C。

6.推理判断题。要根据第四段的Suddenly,lightning flashed right near the arena!... The announcer said there’d been a power failure at America west Arena可以推断出,这次比赛推迟极有可能是因为闪电击中了球场的某个设备造成了停电,故选B。

7.词义猜测题。根据最后一段的Thank heaven, he hadn’t missed a thing. And neither had I. 谢天谢地,他没有错过一件事。我也没有(错过)。由此可推知,儿子最终没有错过比赛,而他也实现了对儿子的承诺,即第二段末句所提的带他去现场看比赛。故选A。

C

Cli-Fi refers to “climate fiction”; it is a term invented by journalist Dan Bloom. These are fictional books that somehow or someway bring real climate change science to the reader. What is really interesting is that Cli-Fi books often present real science in a believable way. They become fun teaching tools. There are some really well known authors such as Paolo Bacigalupi and Margaret Atwood. A list of other candidate Cli-Fi novels was provided by Sarah Holding in the Guardian.

What makes a Cli-Fi novel good? In my opinion, it has to have some real science in it. And it has to get the science right. Second, it has to be fun to read. When done correctly, Cli-Fi can connect people to their world; it can help us understand what future climate may be like, or what current climate effects are.

One thing that is hard to imagine is the future. What will the world be like decades from now when Earth temperatures have continued to rise? What will agriculture be like? What will coastal communities be like? It is also hard to imagine what living a subsistence agriculture life is like, today. What happens to lives and communities when the rains change, or don’t come at all? What would that world look like?

One recent example of Cli-Fi literature is South Pole Station by Ashley Shelby. In this book we follow Cooper Gosling, who is traveling to a research location on Antarctica to create paintings. Yes, an artist is sent to live with researchers and crew — with funding from the National Science Foundation. After arriving at the South Pole, Cooper has to become acquainted with the strange social system that exists there. Ashley writes the book in such a way that you actually feel you are huddled (拥挤) in the cold with her and her co-workers.

8. What makes Cli-Fi books so attractive?

A. They are about real climate change.

B. The climate change described in them seems true.

C. They are a great help to teaching on campus.

D. The books are written by famous authors.

9. What does the author think of the future?

A. It is desirable. B. It is frightening.

C. It is unbelievable. D. It is uncertain.

10. What does Cooper Gosling go to Antarctica to do?

A. Go sightseeing. B. Do research.

C. Paint pictures. D. Gain knowledge.

11. The social system existing at the South Pole that Cooper has to face ________.

A. is unusual B. is complex

C. is unfair D. is colorful

【答案】8.B9.D10.C11.A

【解析】本文为说明文。介绍了气候小说名字的山来、其流行的原因等。

【小题8】推理判断题。根据第一段中的These are fictional books that somehow or someway bring real climate change science to the reader. What is really interesting is that Cli-Fi books often present real science in a believable way. They become fun teaching tool.可知,气候小说很吸引人的原因就是书 里描述的气候变化很真实。

【小题9】推理判断题。根据第三段中的One thing that is hard to imagine is the future可知,作者认为未来是不确定的。

【小题10】细节理解题。根据最后一段中的we follow Cooper Gosling, who is traveling to a research location on Antarctica to create paintings可知,他去南极洲画画。

【小题11】细节理解题。根据最后一段中的After arriving at the South Pole, Cooper has to become acquainted with the strange social system that exists there.可知,那里的社会制度与众不同。

D

Western conservation groups are seeking stricter laws to deal with trade in endangered wildlife, but Dr. Paul Jepson warns that this isn’t the best solution. He highlights the case of the Bali starling (八哥). Bringing in tougher laws created unexpected outcomes, which contributed to the bird’s extinction in the wild in 2006.

He said that the traditional law enforcement (执行) approach that outlawed (宣布……非法) ownership of the Bali starling in the 1980s and 1990s increased rather than reduced the demand for wild-caught Bali starlings. The bird has become a popular gift among the rich of Indonesia, who can gain more status by owning one.

Instead, a case-by-case analysis might be needed. Last year, he said, a bird association set up a network of breeders (饲养者) among the owners of Bali starling on the island of Java. By introducing a “crowd-breeding” model, it transformed the bird into a species whose price and source of supply were publicly known. This lessened the status of keeping such birds and thereby reduced their profitability to black market suppliers.

Another case was on Nusa Penida, an island southeast of Bali. A Balinese conservation group planned to release starlings on the island. Critics tried to block the plan, saying the island was outside the birds’ native zone. Eventually, the Governor of Bali came up with a proposal. The starlings were given to a local temple as a ceremonial offering before they were released. This gave the Bali starling status as a “sacred bird”, giving them protection under customary laws. Now the released starlings established a breeding population on Nusa Penida.

Dr. Jepson commented, “I do not want to criticize the international approach seeking tighter law enforcement, but this case study shows we should not oversimplify how we respond to the problem of the wildlife trade. There is a growing body of evidence that shows more different approaches are sometimes needed to fit with the local social and political realities. We should tailor solutions on more of a case-by-case basis.”

12. What might speed up the wild Bali starling’s extinction in 2006?

A. The bad natural environment.

B. The side effect of strict protection laws.

C. The debate over the wildlife trade.

D. The popularity of the bird in the world.

13. Why was the “crowd-breeding” model introduced?

A. To block the strict laws passed by the government.

B. To cut off the supply to the black market.

C. To make the Bali starling less profitable.

D. To increase the demand for the Bali starling.

14. What can we know about the case-by-case analysis?

A. It implies there’s more than one way to solve a problem.

B. It advocates stricter law enforcement.

C. It has attracted close attention of conservation groups.

D. It is acknowledged as the best solution to illegal wildlife trade.

15. What is the best title for the text?

A. Stricter enforcement is needed for the biodiversity of Indonesia

B. The Bali starling comes back to Nusa Penida

C. Cutting off the market for the illegal wildlife trade

D. Tougher laws to reduce wildlife trade are not enough

【答案】12.B13.C14.A15.D

【解析】本文为说明文。主要内容是在保护濒临灭绝的动物方面,制定严厉的法律并不一定最有效,Dr. Jepson主张灵活的保护措施。

12.细节理解题。根据第一段的Bringing in tougher laws created unexpected outcomes, which contributed to the bird’s extinction in the wild in 2006.可知,Dr. Jepson认为严格的法律实施会有副作用,2006年野生八哥的灭绝就与这个有关。故选B。

13.推理判断题。根据第三段的it transformed the bird into a species whose price and source of supply were publicly known. This lessened the status of keeping such birds and thereby reduced their profitability to black market suppliers.可知,引进此种“群体繁殖”模式意味着公开了巴厘的售价与来路,减少了巴厘八哥在黑市上的盈利空间,故选C。

14.推理判断题。根据最后一段There is a growing body of evidence that shows more different approaches are sometimes needed to fit with the local social and political realities. We should tailor solutions on more of a case-by-case basis.可知,有时需要更多不同的方法来适应当地的社会和政治现实。我们应该根据具体情况量身定制解决方案。这也是Dr. Jepson一直强调的观点,故选A。

15.主旨大意题。通读全文以及第一段的…but Dr. Paul Jepson warns that this isn’t the best solution.

可知,通过巴厘八哥的例子阐述了在减少野生动植物非法贸易方面,制定严厉的法律并不是最有效的,D项(更严格的法律来减少野生动物贸易是不够的)适合作为标题。故选D。

 

 

 

 

 

【河南省十所名校2020届高中毕业班尖子生第一次考试】阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

A

English teachers needed immediately for schools in China

About Us

    Shenzhen Cambridge Culture International Education is an education solution provider that was founded in 2014 and its main office is in Shenzhen and is contracted by education departments across China to hire and manage foreign teachers for schools.

    We are not an agency. We hire and manage you from the start (getting on the plane) to finish (returning home )! We offer visa support, teacher training, lesson planning guidance and the chance to meet other participants before you go to China.  And our programmes are designed to ensure you arrive in China feeling confident, prepared and supported, so that you can make the most of this incredible opportunity.

Benefits

* TEFL Certificate course assistance

    * Work visa(Z visa) sponsored

    * Flight allowance

    * Pre-arrival training and orientation

    * Airport pickup, bank, phone card, and apartment rental assistance

    * Accident insurance

    * Three nights’ free hotel on arrival

    * Salary range: 11,000RMB ( 1,608USD) - 18,000RMB (2,631USD) per month ( 150% - 200% above local average)

* Performance bonus

    * Teaching hours being less than 13 hours per week

    * Chinese public holidays & Summer vacation

    * Ongoing teacher mentoring and assessment ( classroom observations, seminar and monthly training sessions)

    *Chinese Lesson (2 hours/week)

    *Part-time opportunities (We use our large and knowledgeable alumni community to help our teachers connect and find new opportunities so you can develop your skills and career path outside the classroom ! )

Position

    ● Student Ages: kindergarten (3 -6 years old); Primary (6 -12 years old); Middle School (13 -19 years old)

    ● Classroom fully equipped with computer, projector, board, and microphone

    ● Curriculum and teaching materials provided

    ● Local teacher assistant

Requirements

    ● 10 - 12 months’ contract

    ● Bachelor’s Degree(学士学位) or above in any field

    ● 120-hour TEFL certificate required

    ● Native-English speaking level

    ● Hold a passport from the U. S. A. , Canada, Australia, U. K. , South Africa, New Zealand, or Ireland

● Age from 20 years old to 55 years old (visa requirement)

    Living and working in China will be a wonderful opportunity. Come and join us!

    Company Website: http ://www. cambridgeculture. com

21. What can we know about Shenzhen Cambridge Culture International Education?

    A. It has a history of more than a decade.

    B. It has the Chinese government as a sponsor.

    C. Its main task is to train foreign teachers for Chinese schools.

    D. It provides a service package for foreign teachers to work in China.

22. What benefit can teachers get from working with the organization?

    A. One week’ s free hotel.              B. Medical insurance.

    C. Higher salary than local average.      D. Legal aid during public holidays.

23. Who may be qualified for the position?

    A. A Canadian who hasn’ t got the TEFL certificate.

    B. An experienced English teacher who is 65 years old.

    C. A professor who can only work in China for half a year.

    D. A native English speaker who has a Doctor’ s Degree in education.

【答案】21.D22.C23.D

【解析】这是一篇应用文。本文是一则英语外教招聘通知。招聘外教的单位是深圳剑桥文化国际教育中心,这是一所与中国教育部签订了聘请并管理外教合同的机构。另外,文中还提到了在该机构工作的福利、该机构的地理位置、该机构的应聘要求。

21.细节理解题。根据文中第二段第二句提到“We hire and manage you from the start (getting on the plane) to finish (returning home )!”该机构会对招聘来的外教从上飞机那一刻开始一直管理到回家。同时,第三句还提到“We offer visa support, teacher training, lesson planning guidance and the chance to meet other participants before you go to China”该机构会给外教提供签证、培训、教学指导、结识其他参与者等服务。故选D项。

22.细节理解题。根据文章benefits部分的salary range,外教老师的工资为11000至18000人民币,比当地的平均工资水平要高出150%-200%,因此外教老师能在该机构获得高薪水的福利。故选C项。

23.推理判断题。根据文章中requirements部分,可以判断外教老师需要TEFL certificate“英语教师资格证书培训项目”,故A项错误。外教年龄“Age from 20 years old to 55 years old”20岁-55岁,故B项错误。外教需签署10-12个月的合同,即“10 - 12 months’ contract”,故C项错误。外教学历的要求为学士及以上“Bachelor’s Degree(学士学位) or above in any field”,故D项正确。

B

Jim McGee was once an Air Force pilot in Vietnam. In 2017, he was seriously ill because his kidneys(肾)were gone.

Jim immediately started dialysis (透析), but a person of his age on dialysis usually lives only about four years. Transplants are a long-shot alternative. The National Kidney Foundation estimates that 13 people die every day while waiting for a donor with the right blood and tissue types. Jim’ s wife, Shirley McGee, and some family friends offered but weren’t a match.

    Desperate, Shirley had T-shirts made that said “I’ m in need of a donor.” Her husband would wear one whenever he went to downtown Sarasota. No luck.

    In early 2018, Jim didn’t feel like attending a reunion of some Air Force buddies in Monterey, California. “I said, ‘Is it really worth going to Monterey to sit in dialysis for two days?’” Jim recalls. “And my wife said, ‘ Yeah, come on. You really want to see your friends. ’ And I am glad I made that decision.”

    In California, Jim reunited with six fellow airmen, including one he hadn’ t seen in nearly 50 years: Doug Coffman. The two had met when they both were learning Vietnamese before they went overseas. Jim told Doug and his other comrades about his predicament(困境),

    Doug, then 70, happened to have the right blood type and immediately decided to help.

    But could he? Shirley’ s guess was that doctors would tell Doug what they had told her: You’re too old.

    He immediately had his doctor send his medical records to Georgetown Medical Center, where Jim was being treated.

Within a month, Doug was cleared for major testing. The testing revealed not only that

Doug’ s tissue type matched Jim’ s but also that he had the kidneys of a 35-year-old.

    When the doctors gave him the OK to donate, Doug immediately called Jim, and asked for the first surgery date available. On September 18, 2018, Doug went into surgery at 7: 30 a. m.; Jim followed at 9: 30 a.m. By noon, they were both in the recovery room. The transplant was a success.

24. Which of the following can best describe Shirley?

    A. Helpful and considerate.             B. Reasonable and energetic.

    C. Outgoing and thankful.              D. Knowledgeable and talkative.

25. How did Jim feel about his illness just before going to Monterey?

    A. Satisfied.     B. Discouraged.       C. Ashamed.         D. Nervous.

26. Why did Jim McGee decide to go to Monterey?

    A. To seek help.                      B. To practice Vietnamese.

    C. To meet his fellow airmen.           D. To have a thorough examination there.

27. What can we know about Doug Coffman?

    A. He was too old to help.              B. He seldom visited his doctor.

    C. He acted without delay in helping Jim.  D. He was 35 years younger than his age.

【答案】24.A25.B26.C27.C

【解析】这是一篇记叙文。文章讲述了空军飞行员Jim McGee因为肾脏不见病的非常严重,从而需要每天透析,但透析也只能维持四年的生命。Jim McGee和他的妻子迫切地寻找着捐赠者但都徒劳无功。2018年Jim McGee极不情愿地去参加了空军飞行员的聚会,在聚会上他向他的同伴讲述了自己的困境,正好Doug与Jim McGee的血型相符,虽然Doug年纪大了,但Doug的各项检查结果都非常好,最终他们完成了捐献。

24.推理判断题。文中第二段最后一句提到“Jim’ s wife, Shirley McGee, and some family friends offered but weren’t a match.” Jim的妻子Shirley和几个家庭成员都想捐献肾脏给Jim,但是没有成功。同时,第三段又提到“Shirley had T-shirts made that said “I’ m in need of a donor.””Shirley穿着印有“我需要捐赠者”的T恤来帮助Jim找到捐献者。另在文中第四段提到“And my wife said, ‘ Yeah, come on. You really want to see your friends.”,Jim本来不打算参加聚会,但是在妻子Shirley的鼓励下,Jim还是去参加了聚会,最终受到了捐赠。可以说明Shirley是一个愿意帮助且体贴的人。B. Reasonable and energetic.合理、充满活力。C. Outgoing and thankful.外向、感激的,D. Knowledgeable and talkative.知识渊博、能言善道。故A项正确。

25.推理判断题。文章第二段提到“…13 people die every day…”每天都有13个人因为等不到捐献者死亡,这给Jim增加了心理上的压力,在第三段提到“Desperate …No luck.”虽然Jim的妻子通过宣传的形式想为Jim找到捐献者,但也是徒劳无功。所以Jim感到非常的沮丧。A. Satisfied.满意的,B. Discouraged.沮丧的,C. Ashamed.羞愧的,D. Nervous.焦虑的。故B项正确。

26.细节理解题。文章第四段提到“And my wife said, ‘ Yeah, come on. You really want to see your friends. ’ And I am glad I made that decision.” Jim的妻子鼓励他去参见聚会,鼓励他去见见他的朋友,Jim到了之后也觉得自己做了个正确的决定。故C项正确。

27.推理判断题。在文章中第6段提到“…immediately decided to help”,第8段“He immediately had his doctor…”、第10段“…Doug immediately called Jim…”出现了三次“immediately”立刻地,Doug得知Jim的情况后“立刻”决定帮助,“立刻”联系了自己的医生,在得知检查结果后“立刻”安排了手术,说明了Doug是毫不犹豫地帮助Jim。故C项正确。

同学们在做题时要留意在文章中反复出现的词。1. 反复出现可表示强调。表达作者的情感态度等。2. 前后文呼应。强调该词在文中的作用。如在第四题中,询问关于Doug Coffman的情况,在文中可发现出现了三次immediately立刻地,可以发现作者使用该词来强调Doug Coffman处理事情的及时,即答案选C。

C

    A survey in the Philippines has shown the country uses a “shocking” amount of single-use plastic, including nearly 60 billion sachets (小袋) a year, a new report said Friday. The report, produced by the non-governmental organization GAIA, is part of an effort to collect data on plastic consumption as environmentalists push for government action to reduce plastic waste.

    It contains shocking figures: every day, almost 48 million shopping bags are used throughout the Philippines, adding up to more than 17 billion a year.  And that figure does not include the smaller, thinner and often transparent plastic bags known as “labo” bags—around 16.5 billion of those are used per year across the country, the report says. The figures are based on 21 waste assessments conducted in 13 cities across the Philippines, with the national figures produced by extrapolating(推断) from local results.

    More than half of non-recyclable plastic analyzed in the survey came from sachets—small plastic packets often lined with aluminium or containing other materials that make them non-recyclable.  Small portions of products ranging from coffee to shampoo are often sold in sachets in the Philippines, and are seen as an affordable solution for consumers.

    But Grate said the popularity appeared to be more a result of what is available, with wealthier consumers simply buying multiple sachets. “If you go to the supermarkets, it’ s rare for you to be able to buy coffee in bigger containers; it’s all in sachets,” he said.

    The survey is the first time an organization has tried to quantify(确定数量) sachet use, and the NGO hopes to pressure both the government and industry to take action on controlling single-use plastic. The report found that where local-level plastic bag bans have been put in place and strictly enforced, usage has dropped dramatically.

    It urged the government to “institute a comprehensive national plastic bag ban that promotes reusable bags”. And it wants regulations on other single-use plastic products and rules requiring companies to redesign products and packaging to minimize plastic waste.

28. What’ s the purpose of GAIA in carrying out the survey?

    A. To show how shocking the amount of plastic waste can be.

    B. To get people and the government know better about its final goal.

    C. To collect accurate numbers of plastic bags used in the whole country.

    D. To help make the government take measures to reduce plastic waste.

29. Why can’t many sachets be recycled?

    A. They are not made of only plastic.

    B. They won’ t last long after being buried.

    C. They cost less to be made than recycled.

    D. They can naturally change to a simpler chemical form.

30. Which is a reason for the popularity of sachets in the Philippines?

    A. They can’ t be easily afforded.         B. Big containers are rarely available.

    C. Shopping bags are often transparent.    D. They are more environmentally friendly.

31. How can companies help reduce plastic waste according to GAIA?

    A. By producing fewer products.

    B. By inventing new recycling machines.

    C. By donating money to recycling companies.

D. By using as little plastic as possible on their products.

【答案】28.D29.A30.B31.D

【解析】这是一篇说明文。文章讲述了非政府组织GAIA在菲律宾的调查显示,菲律宾一年要使用600亿塑料袋。这一数据并不包括在全国范围内使用的165亿个labo袋,因为在菲律宾,咖啡或者洗发水都是以小袋装的形式售卖的。非政府组织希望给政府及企业施压,不要使用如此多的一次性塑料。同时也希望能制定一系列关于一次性塑料的规范及条例,以尽可能减少塑料污染。

28.推理判断题。文章第一段最后一句提到“is part of an effort to collect data on plastic consumption as environmentalists push for government action to reduce plastic waste”该研究的提出是为了环保主义者推动政府减少塑料浪费的一部分努力结果。故D项正确。

29.细节理解题。文中第三段提到“small plastic packets often lined with aluminium or containing other materials that make them non-recyclable.”这种小塑料袋是加了铝或其他物质,所以才会很难回收。如果成分仅仅是塑料,回收则相对容易。故A项正确。

30.推理判断题。文章第三段提到菲律宾的咖啡、洗发水等物都是使用小袋进行售卖的,这是相对消费者而言较为实惠的方法。第四段也引用了Grate的观点“If you go to the supermarkets, it’ s rare for you to be able to buy coffee in bigger containers; it’s all in sachets”,在菲律宾的超市里很少能见到用大的容器来贩卖咖啡的,都是用小袋子卖的。故B项正确。

31.细节理解题。文章倒数第二段提到“the NGO hopes to pressure both the government and industry to take action on controlling single-use plastic.”非政府组织希望向政府和企业施压,控制一次性塑料的使用。报告发现,在地方一级的塑料袋禁令已经实施并严格执行,使用量已大幅下降。故D项正确。

 

D

    The negative health effects of sleep shortages during the week can’ t be changed by marathon weekend sleep sessions, according to a new study.

    Researchers have long known that routine sleep deprivation(缺乏) can cause weight gain and increase other health risks, including diabetes. But there are still some people who hope that shutting off the alarm on Saturday and Sunday will repay the weekly sleep debt and remove any ill effects.

    The research, published in Current Biology, ruins those hopes. Despite complete freedom to sleep in and nap during a weekend recovery period, participants in a sleep laboratory who were limited to five hours of sleep on weekdays gained nearly three pounds over two weeks and experienced metabolic disruption(代谢紊乱) that would increase their risk for diabetes over the long term. While weekend recovery sleep had some benefits after a single week of insufficient sleep, those gains were wiped out when people returned right to their same sleep schedule the next Monday.

    “If there are benefits of catch-up sleep, they’ re gone when you go back to your routine. It’ s very short-lived,” said Kenneth Wright, who oversaw the research. “These health effects are long-term. It’ s kind of like smoking once was—people would smoke and wouldn’ t see an immediate effect on their health, but people will say now that smoking is not a healthy lifestyle choice. I think sleep is in the early phase of where smoking used to be.”

    Wright said that the study suggests people should prioritize sleep—cutting out the optional “sleep stealers” such as watching television shows or spending time on electronic devices. Even when people don’t have a choice about losing sleep due to child-care responsibilities or job schedules, they should think about prioritizing sleep in the same way they would think about a healthy diet or exercise.

32. What had the researchers already known before doing the new research?

    A. The actual benefits of weekend recovery sleep.

    B. Harm to health caused by the lack of routine sleep.

    C. People’ s habit of shutting off the alarm during holidays.

    D. The relationship between body weight and sleep amount.

33. Kenneth Wright mentioned smoking to _________.

    A. call on smokers to completely abandon smoking

    B. advise people to go to sleep when they want to smoke

    C. show people have known the harm brought by smoking

    D. show people will someday notice the bad effects of sleep deprivation

34. What does the underlined word “prioritize” in the last paragraph probably mean?

    A. Putting tasks in order of importance.

    B. Getting more than enough of something to deposit it.

    C. Cutting down something that is not necessary any more.

    D. Treating something as being more important than others.

35. What can be the best title for the text?

    A. Weekend catch-up sleep is a lie.

    B. Bad sleep habits are harmful to health.

    C. Smoking is not the worst thing to health.

D. A new study has an unexpected discovery.

【答案】32.B33.D34.D35.A

【解析】这是一篇说明文。文章提到,根据一项新的研究马拉松式的周末睡眠无法改变一周中睡眠不足对健康的负面影响。研究者发现平常睡眠的缺乏可能会导致一系列身体问题,如肥胖、糖尿症。研究发现每周只睡五小时的实验者在两周长了3磅并引起了代谢紊乱。虽然在周末恢复睡眠能有一定的好处,但工作日时如果又回到相同的睡眠时间,这些好处就会化为乌有。研究者表示,人们日常生活中要优先保证睡眠以保证身体健康。

32.细节理解题。文中第二段第一句提到“Researchers have long known that routine sleep deprivation(缺乏) can cause weight gain and increase other health risks, including diabetes.”研究者在做新研究之前就已经知道睡眠的缺乏会导致肥胖、糖尿病等健康危机。have long known意为早就知道,即在研究前就知道。故B项正确。

33.推理判断题。文中第四段第一句提到“…It’ s very short-lived”,短暂睡眠的益处是非常短暂的,同时提到“It’ s kind of like smoking once was—people would smoke and wouldn’t see an immediate effect on their health, but people will say now that smoking is not a healthy lifestyle choice.”之前人们抽烟时并不理会当下抽烟对于健康的影响。但现在的人们会说抽烟不是一个健康的生活方式。此处将抽烟与睡眠缺乏做类比。故D项正确。

34.词义猜测题。文中最后一段第一句中出现破折号,破折号的用法为解释说明前面某词的含义。文中提到“cutting out the optional “sleep stealers” such as watching television”,cut out意为停止,停止“睡眠小偷”对睡眠的影响,即保证睡眠。Prioritize意为“优先处理”,在文章中意为优先保证睡眠。故选D。

35.主旨大意题。文章第一段提到“马拉松式周末睡眠期无法改变一周睡眠短缺对健康的负面影响,”开篇即点题,但并不没有提到unexpected出乎意料的,故D项错误。第二段第一句中提到,研究员很早之前就知道睡眠不足对健康的危害,但在其他段落没有继续陈述其危害故B项错误。C项中smoking只是在倒数第二段中作为例子进行类比,故C项错误。故选A。

【山东省济南市济钢高级中学2020届高三第一次诊断】阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。

A

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C. win more support of other business partners

D. show off its abundant libraries of content

                  

【答案】21.B22.D23.A

【解析】

21.细节理解题。根据第一段Associated Content(AC) is an online publishing platform that enables anyone lo earn money by writing articles on the Web.和第二段最后一句This is a job you can do anywhere—all you need is access to the Internet.可知,如果你想给AC撰稿,应上网。故选B项。

22.细节理解题。根据Here’s how you get started…部分的4)中的 You’ll begin earning money as soon as your articles are published and the amount is based on the pageviews your articles receive.可知,你的文章赚钱多少由文章收到的页面浏览量决定。分析选项可知D项符合题意。

23.推理判断题。根据第四段内容可知,Partner Content Team 与AC —起给人们提供了更多撰稿的机会。由此可推断出提及它的目的就是鼓励人们为AC写更多的文章。分析选项可知A项符合题意。

B

Japan has made a lot of noise in recent years about removing the traditional view that women should stay at home while men go out to work. So it was shocking when,on August 7th,Tokyo Medical University (TMU),a distinguished medical school,admitted marking down the test scores of female applicants to keep the ratio of women in each class below 30%.

Their defence was that women are more likely to drop out to marry and have children. To judge female applicants to medical school purely on their academic performance would leave Japan with a shortage of doctors,they said. The admission has caused outrage.

“Doctoring has long been a male field. But it is not the only one. Discrimination is common in banks and trading firms,where stamina(耐力) and loyalty,qualities somehow associated with men,are prized,” says Mari Miura,a political scientist at Sophia University. All this embarrasses a government that has promised to make women “shine”. The policy seems based on the need for more workers rather than on genuine concern for women.

Shinzo Abe,the prime minister,says he wants to bring millions more women into the workforce to make up for a labour shortfall caused by its ageing and declining population. In the field of politics,the record under Mr Abe’s premiership(首相任期) is disappointing. Just two members of his 20-strong cabinet are women,including Seiko Noda,in charge of women’s rights. Ms Noda,who makes little secret of her ambition to beat Mr Abe in a leadership contest next month,has just published a book called Grab the Future,her public declaration for pulling Japan into line with “global standards”. She has almost no chance of winning.

 

24.According to the passage, what has aroused the public’s shock and rage in Japan?

A. Women being more likely to drop out of school to marry and have children.

B. TMU putting a lower grade on female applicants to keep a low percentage of women in each class.

C. TMU judging female applicants to medical school merely on their test score.

D. Japan tending to abandon the traditional view that women should stay at home while men go out to work.

25. What do we know about Seiko Noda?

A. She is quite likely to win the leadership contest.

B. She is the only female member in Abe’s cabinet.

C. She never fails to show her ambition in public.

D. Her newly released book Grab the Future is a bit hit.

26. What does the passage mainly talk about?

A. Discrimination against women in careers in Japan is a big concern.

B. Professions like banking and trading are tailored to men.

C. Shinzo Abe performed poorly in dealing with labour shortfall.

D. Doctoring has long been a male field in Japan.

【答案】24.B25.C26.A

【解析】本文为一篇说明文。主要叙述了最近的日本尤其是东京医科大学对女性的性别歧视,使社会一片哗然,这一性别歧视现象让日本政府陷入窘境。

24.细节理解题。根据第一段最后一句可知在 8 月 7 日,当声望卓著的医学院——东京医科大学承认压低了女性申请者的考试分数,以将每个班级中女生的比例维持在 30%以下时,社会一片哗然。由此可知,答案选B项。

25.细节理解题。根据最后一段最后两句可知,野田毫不掩饰她在下个月的竞选中击败安倍的野心。她刚刚还出版了一本名为《抓住未来》的书,根据她的言行可知,她在公众场合表达自己的雄心,故选C项。

26.主旨大意题。通读全文可知,本文主要叙述了最近日本尤其是东京医科大学对女性的性别歧视,使社会一片哗然,这一性别歧视现象让日本政府陷入窘境,在事业上对女性的歧视成为日本很大的问题。故选A项。

 

 

 

C

As ice melts in West Antarctica the ground beneath is quickly rising---a process that could prevent the catastrophic(灾难性的) collapse of ice sheets, according to researchers.

A study published in the journal Science provides a glimmer(一丝;一线) of hope for a region affected by climate change. In recent years, several studies have warned the ice sheet, which contributes to a quarter of melted ice worldwide annually, is very easy to break up. Scientists fear even slightly melting could cause global sea levels to rise by 3 meters.

Researchers at the Technical University of Denmark set out to answer how the bedrock underneath the ice sheet of West Antarctica behaves as the ice melts. To study the land, the team analyzed data collected by high-precision GPS equipment positioned on remote rock formations in West Antarctica, which measured movements of the land down to the millimeter over a 10-year period.

“After a heroic effort to install and maintain the network of sensors in one of the least accessible places on the planet, the team has been rewarded with incredibly valuable data, which tell an incredible story about the Barth,” wrote Valentina Barletta.

The team found that the Earth was pushing the bedrock to rise faster than expected. In 2014, the surface rose by 41 millimeters: four to five times quicker than predicted. In 100 years, the land could be up to 10 meters higher than it is currently.

It is hoped that as the ice melts, the Earth's crust(地壳) will bounce back much faster than previously expected. In turn, this could stabilize what the researchers described as the "catastrophic collapse" of the ice sheet.

Barletta told Newsweek the ice sheet will never be stable if global warming becomes too extreme. “Reducing the greenhouse gas will give the ice sheet a better chance of survival because that would allow some known and unknown feedback(反馈) to create better conditions for the ice,” she said.

 

27. What happens to West Antarctica as ice melts?

A. The ground beneath is getting taller.

B. Its ice sheets break up completely.

C. Global sea levels rise by 3 meters.

D. Climate change comes to an end.

28. Why do scientists use high-precision GPS equipment?

A. To find out whether the ice sheet is very easy to break up.

B. To find out the connection of the bedrock and ice melting.

C. To find out what really affects the speed of ice melting.

D. To find out when West Antarctica will disappear totally.

29. How did the research team feel about the study result?

A. Disappointed.    B. Sorry.    C. Surprised.      D. Angry.

30. What should we do for the ice sheet's survival?

A. Stop the bedrock from rising.

B. Prevent the temperature rising.

C. Create more ice for the ice sheet.

D. Cut down the greenhouse gas.

【答案】27.A28.B29.C30.D

【解析】这是一篇记叙文。研究人员称,随着南极洲西部冰层的融化,冰层下的地面正在迅速上升,这一过程可能会阻止冰盖灾难性的崩塌。为了冰盖的生存我们应该减少温室气体排放。

27.细节理解题。根据第一段第一句As ice melts in West Antarctica the ground beneath is quickly rising“当南极洲西部的冰融化时,下面的地面正在迅速上升”。可知,下面的地面越来越高。故选A。

28.推理判断题。根据第三段中To study the land, the team analyzed data collected by high-precision GPS equipment positioned on remote rock formations in West Antarctica, which measured movements of the land down to the millimeter over a 10-year period.“为了研究这片土地,研究小组分析了位于南极洲西部偏远岩层上的高精度GPS设备收集的数据,这些设备在10年的时间里测量了陆地的移动,精确到毫米。”可知,科学家使用高精度的GPS设备是为了找出基岩与冰融化的关系。故选B。

29.推理判断题。根据第四段中“After a heroic effort to install and maintain the network of sensors in one of the least accessible places on the planet, the team has been rewarded with incredibly valuable data, which tell an incredible story about the Barth,”“ 在地球上最难接近的地方安装和维护传感器网络的英勇的努力之后,这个团队获得了非常有价值的数据,这些数据讲述了一个the Barth的令人难以置信的故事,”可知,研究小组对研究结果“感到惊讶”。故选C。

30.推理判断题。根据最后一段中“Reducing the greenhouse gas will give the ice sheet a better chance of survival because that would allow some known and unknown feedback(反馈) to create better conditions for the ice,”“ 减少温室气体排放将使冰盖有更好的生存机会,因为这会让一些已知和未知的反馈为冰盖创造更好的条件,”可知,为了冰盖的生存我们应该减少温室气体排放。故选D。

推理判断题要求在理解原文表面文字信息的基础上,做出一定的推理判断,从而得到文章的隐含意义和深层意义。推理判断题所涉及的内容可能是文中的某一句话,也可能是某几句话,所以,推理题的答案只能是根据原文表面文字信息一步推出的答案:即对原文某一句话或某几句话所作的同义改写或综合。推理判断题的题干中通常含infer,suggest,imply,conclude  indicate等标志性词语。 这种题型主要包括细节判断题、态度观点推断题、写作意图推断题、文章出处判断题和猜测想象推断题。本题第4小题,根据最后一段中“Reducing the greenhouse gas will give the ice sheet a better chance of survival because that would allow some known and unknown feedback(反馈) to create better conditions for the ice,”“ 减少温室气体排放将使冰盖有更好的生存机会,因为这会让一些已知和未知的反馈为冰盖创造更好的条件,”可知,为了冰盖的生存我们应该减少温室气体排放。故选D。

D

In one year, Mitch Gardner, 22, and Rob Richardson, 21, became owners of a successful IOS app---Pocket Points from average college students.

Pocket Points rewards students for staying out of their phones in class. In one year, it went from a few thousand downloads on campus of California State University, Chico to more than 200,000 downloads from students at more than 100 universities nationwide.

Richardson says the idea for the app came to him in the spring of 2014 as he was sitting in a 150-person lecture room. He noticed many of his classmates' heads were down---they were playing with their phones. “I knew something had to be done to get students to put their phones away,” says Richardson

Once students open the Pocket Points app and lock their phones, they start to accumulate points. The longer their phones stay locked, the more points they can get. Points are also awarded based on how many people are on the app at a time. The app is free and only works on campus. Students can exchange their points for free or discounted items at local shops.

Jack Micek, 20, a student at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, says he first heard about Pocket Points from his classmates. “They were actually very competitive about who had the most points,” Micek says. “Naturally, my interest was sparked(激发;引起), and I was like, ‘OK, I bet I can get more points than you guys can.’”

But Kelli Britten, a lecturer in advertising and public relations at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, says the app presents some problems. “It seems almost useless because I think if you’re just sitting in the building, you can just turn the app on and be collecting points as well,” says Britten. And Hannah Christian, another student at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, says she does exactly that. Since she lives on campus, she says Pocket Points works in her dorm.

Gardner says he and Richardson don't want people to abuse the app, so they're trying to control accessibility so students can't earn points from dorms. While Pocket Points doesn't solve everything, he says at least it mitigates some problems in the classroom.

 

31. What can be the best title for the passage?

A. Pocket Points is popular among university students.

B. Pocket Points rewards students for staying out of their phones in class.

C. Two university students become famous for Pocket Points.

D. Pocket Points helps you save money.

32. You can gain points when__________.

A. you are talking on the phone in class

B. you lock your phone in a local shop

C. you are surfing the Internet in your dorm

D. you lock your phone in a lecture room 

33. What conclusion can we draw from the passage?

A. Richardson used to play with his phone in lectures.

B. Kelli Britten thinks the app is of great use.

C. Gardner and Richardson will try their best to make the app more practical.

D. Jack Micek heard about Pocket Points from his classmates in a competition.

34. We can learn from the passage that Hannah Christian _________.

A. opens the app in her classroom

B. likes to surf the Internet in her dorm

C. does exactly as the inventors hope

D. doesn't make good use of the app 

35. The underlined word can be best replaced by “__________”.

A. eases B. helps C. Increases D. develops

【答案】31.B32.D33.C34.D35.A

【解析】这是一篇说明文,文章讲述的是Pocket Points奖励学生在课堂上不使用手机。

31.主旨大意题。根据第二段第一句Pocket Points rewards students for staying out of their phones in class.“Pocket Points奖励学生在课堂上不使用手机。”可知本文讲述的是Pocket Points奖励学生在课堂上不使用手机。故选B。

32.细节理解题。根据第四段Once students open the Pocket Points app and lock their phones, they start to accumulate points. The longer their phones stay locked, the more points they can get.“一旦学生打开Pocket Points应用并锁定手机,他们就开始累积积分。手机锁定的时间越长,他们得到的分数就越多。”可知,把手机锁在教室里可以加分。故选D。

33.细节理解题。根据最后一段Gardner says he and Richardson don't want people to abuse the app, so they're trying to control accessibility so students can't earn points from dorms.“加德纳说,他和理查森不希望人们滥用这款应用程序,所以他们试图控制可访问性,这样学生就不能从宿舍里获得分数。”可知,从这篇文章可知“加德纳和理查森将尽最大努力使这款应用程序更加实用。”故选C。

34.推理判断题。根据第二段中“It seems almost useless because I think if you’re just sitting in the building, you can just turn the app on and be collecting points as well,” says Britten. And Hannah Christian, another student at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, says she does exactly that.“布里顿说:“这看起来几乎毫无用处,因为我认为,如果你只是坐在大楼里,你可以打开应用程序,同时收集积分。”内布拉斯加大学林肯分校的另一名学生汉娜·克里斯蒂安(Hannah Christian)说,她就是这么做的。”我们可以从文章中得知Hannah Christian并没有很好地利用这个应用程序。故选D。

35.词义猜测题。根据最后一段最后一句While Pocket Points doesn't solve everything, he says at least it mitigates some problems in the classroom.“虽然Pocket Points并不能解决所有问题,但他表示,至少它能缓解课堂上的一些问题。”可知,划线词的的意思是“缓解,减轻”。故选A。

利用上下文提供的情景和线索,进行合乎逻辑的综合分析进而推测词义,最常见的就是利用上下文语境、常识和语法关系推断词义,尤其要抓住所需推断词汇前后的含义。本题第5小题,根据最后一段最后一句While Pocket Points doesn't solve everything, he says at least it mitigates some problems in the classroom.“虽然Pocket Points并不能解决所有问题,但他表示,至少它能缓解课堂上的一些问题。”可知,划线词的的意思是“缓解,减轻”。故选A。

【湖北省部分重点中学2019-2020学年高三上学期零模】阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。

A

SUPPORT WORKER 

Do you have the ability to care for others? Can you understand how older people feel? Are you a good communicator? Do you have good listening skills? Can you work weekends?

If you have answered YES to the above, we would like to hear from you: 

☆ Starting rate of £8.56 per hour 

☆ Free uniform 

☆ Excellent training 

careers@golden-care.com 

WOWEE MAGAZINE 

Writers Wanted 

Wowee Magazine is looking for writers for its website. Pay is based on the number of people who read your articles.You may also receive free tickets to events and free products to test. This is a great opportunity to get valuable work experience.

We want people who are: chatty interesting passionate skilled 

Contact us at info@wowee.com. 

CALLING ALL MODELS 

Think you could be a model? If so, we'd like to meet you!

Working as a successful fashion model isn't easy but it is very exciting and could be a great opportunity. 

Girls should be over 16 with a minimum height of 172cm and boys should have a minimum height of 182cm. If you are under 16 and do not yet have the required height, we would still be interested in meeting you, but you must bring a parent. 

info@top-model-agency.uk 

WORK FOR COFFEE BEANS 

Join Britain's number one cafe at Coffee Beans, where every cafe has the same aims: to create family-like teams and to give excellent customer service. 

Many different kinds of people come and work with us, so start your career at Coffee Beans today: 

☆ Choose the hours you work 

☆ Get management experience 

☆ Share your love of coffee 

Join us as a Team Member, Assistant Manager of Cafe Manager, depending on your skills and experience. 

Email us at jobs@coffeebeans.co.uk.

21.  Which address should you email at if you want to be a support worker? 

A. careers@golden-care.com B. info@wowee.com 

C. info@top-model-agency.uk D. jobs@coffeebeans.co.uk 

22.  A writer working for Wowee Magazine can ______ .

A. bring a parent 

B. get a free uniform 

C. choose working hours

D. receive free tickets to events 

23.  What can we learn about the jobs from the job postings?  

A. The model opportunity is only meant for adults.

B. There is no need to be trained as a support worker.

C. Employees at Coffee Beans have few management opportunities.

D. Applicants to Wowee Magazine should be sociable and enthusiastic.

【答案】21.A22.D23.D

【解析】本文是一篇应用文,是四则工作招聘告示。

21.细节理解题。根据第一则广告的标题SUPPORT WORKER和邮箱Careers@golden-care.com可知要选A项。

22.细节理解题。根据第二则广告中的.You may also receive free tickets to events and free products to test.可知为Wowee Magazine工作的作家可能还会得到一些活动的免费入场券,故选C项。

23.细节理解题。根据第二则广告中的We want people who are: chatty interesting passionate skilled可知Wowee Magazine想招健谈的,有趣的,热情的并且有技能的人。一个人健谈说明其擅长交际。所以申请Wowee Magazine工作的必须是善于交际,对工作热情的人,故选D项。

做细节理解题时,抓住文段中的事实和细节是做好该题型的关键,也是做好其它类型问题的基础。该题型几乎都可以在文章中直接找到与答案有关的信息,或是其变体。做这类题一般采用寻读法,即先读题,然后带着问题快速阅读短文,找出与问题和选项有关的词语或句子,再对相关部分进行分析对比,找出答案。比如本文第1.2小题通过题目找到原文相关的句子就直接能够选出答案。

B

I can proudly say that last year I broke the record for the oldest person in the world to ride a roller-coaster. I'm 105, but I feel younger. Even the doctor agrees I'm in good condition. I'm a bit deaf and my legs feel weak, but they are the only issue. 

I rode the Twistosaurus at Flamingo Land, which spins you round quite fast. I didn't choose to go on that. I'd have preferred a really fast one that went upside down. But I was told I couldn't ride something like that, because my blood pressure could drop and I might have some danger. 

I wasn't nervous - I don't get frightened of anyting. I was securely fastened, so I knew I wouldn't fall out. The roller-coaster ride went on for three or four minutes, and it couldn't be a better experience. And I raised a lot of money for the Derbyshire, Leicestershire & Rutland Air Ambulance fund, which was fantastic. 

People were saying I'd got a place in the Guinness World Records. Later, someone came to present me with the certificate. I had it on the wall in my living room, with another one that got a year earlier. 

My record-breaking ways really began a couple of years ago, with the ice-bucket challenge. It turned out that I was probably the oldest person in the world to do it, and the video was very popular. After that, I stared to think about what else I could do to raise money for different charities. 

I'm not sure if anyone admires all the fun I'm having. They just say I'm daft and that's about it. But I've had many good days and many exciting times. I've had a really good life. I don't think I've wasted any of it.

24.  Why didn't the author choose to go on riding the Twistosaurus?  

A. Because he was told not to do so.

B. Because he considered it too gentle.

C. Because he thought it spun too fast.

D. Because he was in a bad physical condition.

25.  How did the author most probably react while riding the roller-coaster? 

A. He really enjoyed himself.

B. He was very worried at first.

C. He couldn't think much about it.

D. He got frightened as it started moving.

26.  What do you know about the author from Paragraph 4? 

A. He was eager to get certificates. 

B. He disliked showing off his success. 

C. He was the oldest person in the world.

D. He set a record the year before last year. 

27.  Which word can best describe the author? 

A. Cooperative. B. Optimistic. C. Generous.   D. Intelligent.

【答案】24.B25.A26.D27.B

【解析】本文是一篇记叙文。短文叙述了作者打破了世界上最年长的人坐过山车的纪录。尽管有人说他傻,但是他觉得他度过了很多美好的时光。

24.推理判断题。由第二段“I didn’t choose to go on that. I’d have preferred a really fast one that went upside down.”可知,作者没有选择乘坐那个。他更喜欢速度快的上下颠倒的那种过山车。由此推断作者没有选择坐Twistosaurus的原因是因为他认为它太平缓了。故选B项。

25.推理判断题。由第二段“The roller-coaster ride went on for three or four minutes, and it couldn’t be a better experience.”可知,过山车连续运行了三四分钟,这是在好不过的体验。作者认为这次体验很好,所以作者坐过山车的时候最可能的反应是他很开心。故选A项。

26.推理判断题。由第四段“Later, someone came to present me with the certificate. I had it on the wall in my living room, with another one that got a year earlier.”可知,后来有人给作者颁发了证书。作者把它和前年获得的证书一起挂在客厅的墙上。由此推断作者前年创造了一项纪录获得了证书。故选D项。

27.推理判断题。由最后一段中的“I'm not sure if anyone admires all the fun I'm having. They just say I’m daft and that’s about it. But I’ve had many good days and many exciting times.”可知,我不确定是否有人能够欣赏我得到的乐趣。他们只是说他愚蠢,仅此而已。但我度过了许多美好的日子和令人兴奋的时光。这说明作者是个很乐观积极的人,不因别人不好的看法改变自己的想法。故选B项。

C

We can video chat with astronauts aboard the International Space Station and watch live footage from the frozen heights of Everest. But communicating with a submarine (潜艇) or a diver is not so easy. The lack of practical methods for sharing data between underwater and airborne devices has long been a frustration for scientists. The difficulty stems from the fact that radio signals work perfectly in air travel but poorly in water. Sonar(声呐)signals used by underwater sensors reflect off the surface of the water rather than reaching the air. 

Now, researchers at MIT have developed a method with the potential to revolutionize underwater communication. "What we've shown is that it's actually feasible to communicate from underwater to the air," says Fadel Adib, a professor at MJT's Media Lab, who led the research.

The MIT researchers designed a system that uses an underwater machine to send sonar signals to the surface, making vibrations (震动)corresponding to the ls and Os of the data. A surface receiver then reads and decodes these tiny vibrations. The researchers call the system TARF. It has any number of potential real-world uses, Adib says. It could be used to find downed planes underwater by reading signals from sonar devices in a plane' s black box and it could allow submarines to communicate with the surface. 

Right now the technology is low-resolution. The initial study was conducted in the MIT swimming pool at maximum depths of around 11 or 12 feet. The next steps for the researchers are to see if TARF is workable at much greater depths and under varying conditions-high waves, storms, schools of fish. They also want to see if they can make the technology work in the other direction- air to water. 

If the technology proves successful in real-world conditions, expect "texting while diving" to be the latest underwater fashion.

28.  What does the author mainly talk about in Paragraph 1? 

A. The future of video chat underwater and in air.

B. The difficulty of communication from water to air. 

C. The frustrations of developing underwater devices.

D. The current situation of communicating with a submarine.

29.  What does the underlined word "feasible" mean?  

A. Changeable. B. Convenient. C. Achievable. D. Alternative.

30.  What do we know about TARF? 

A. It is widely used to find downed planes.

B. It can work well at great depths underwater.

C. It is an underwater machine that sends signals.

D. It can send, receive and read signals from underwater.

31.  What is the best title for the text? 

A. The Real-world Uses of Sonar Technology

B. A Breakthrough in the Application of Video Chat

C. Full Water-to-air Communication Closer to Reality 

D. TARF Becoming a New Means of Communication

【答案】28.B29.C30.D31.C

【解析】这是一篇说明文。讲述的是水下与陆地上的通信在之前是无法实现的,随着科技的进步,这一通讯逐渐能够变为现实。

28.细节理解题。根据第一段第二句But communicating with a submarine (潜艇)or a diver is not so easy.The lack of practical methods for sharing data between underwater and airborne devices has long been a frustration for scientists可知从水里向空气中传递信息,进行交流是很困难的。故选B项。

29.词义猜测题。根据第二段第一句Now,researchers at MIT have developed a method with the potential to revolutionize underwater communication.可知现在,麻省理工学院的研究人员已经开发出一种有可能彻底改变水下通信的方法。由此推断海底与外界的沟通实际上是可行的。所以该词的意思是"可行的、可实现的"。故选C项。

30.细节理解题。根据第二段" The MIT researchers designed a system that uses an underwater machine to send sonar signals to the surface, making vibrations (震动)corresponding to the ls and Os of the data. A surface receiver then reads and decodes these tiny vibrations. "可知,麻省理工学院的研究人员设计了一个系统,该系统使用水下机器向地面发送声纳信号,使震动对应于数据ls和Os。 然后,表面接收器读取并解码这些微小的振动。研究人员将系统称为TARF。也就是TARF系统可以从水下发送、接收和读取信号。故选D项。

31.主旨大意题。根据第一段最后两句和第二段第一句The difficulty stems from the fact that radio signals work perfectly in air travel but poorly in water.Sonar signals used by underwater sensors reflect off the surface of the water rather than reaching the air. Now,researchers at MIT have developed a method with the potential to revolutionize underwater communication.可知,本文讲述的是水下与陆地上的通信在以前是无法实现的,但随着科技的进步,这一通讯逐渐能够变为现实。故选C项。

D

It's not easy feeling like you're always under the spotlight being judged for each little mistake you make. Your mind is in an endless circle playing what you said and did over and over again. You wish you had a time capsule to go back and make things fight if you find mistakes. You fear what others will think about you and that they will reject and dislike you. You seek to be socially perfect. 

Academically,you work long endless hours just to make those excellent marks. Although most would say "it's good to have high standards,"they have no idea about the internal hell you put yourself through to achieve perfection. If you come up less than your desired goal you feel as though you have failed, but you're far from failing, you just don't see it that way. So instead you are telling yourself that you're stupid, and not smart. The pressure you place on yourself weighs you down and you wear the "not good enough" label each and every day. 

You not only have high standards for yourself but you also have them for others. If people don't perform up to your expectations, then you think them incompetent. This causes a lot of frustration because you can't trust anyone to get things right. So instead of being a team player you fly solo(单飞)and try to do two or three jobs at once. Your unrealistic expectations cause you to criticize and judge others and that leads to problems in other areas of your life.

The attempt to be perfect is called perfectionism and it's the unachievable American dream that's damaging our emotional and mental health. We strive for perfection with our body, in our performance,and in our relationships. In a society that overstates mistakes, is it any wonder that so many young people attempt the impossible task of being perfect? 

We all have flaws, fears, and make mistakes, and that's perfectly OK. It's our imperfections that make life interesting and they help us grow into a stronger more adaptable person. We don't have to strive to achieve the impossible. We are designed to be perfectly imperfect.

32.  Where is this text most likely from?

A. A diary.   B. A magazine.   C. A novel.    D. A guide book.

33.  Which of the following is a perfectionist most likely to agree? 

A. Be generous with praise. 

B. Nobody is perfect.

C. There is no best, only better.

D. A contented mind is an everlasting feast.

34.  What can we infer from paragraph 4? 

A. The society is partly to blame for perfectionism.

B. More and more people are tolerating mistakes.

C. Many young people find it impossible to be perfect.

D. It's unusual for a society to seek perfectionism nowadays.

35.  What does the author think of imperfection? 

A. It's unbearable. 

B. It's part of our life.

C. It deserves to be overcome.

D. It does harm to our mental health.

【答案】32.B33.C34.A35.B

【解析】本文是一篇说明文。完美的尝试被称为完美主义,追求完美是无法实现的,它破坏了我们的情绪和心理健康。我们不必努力实现不可能。

32.推理判断题。本文是一篇说明文,不太可能来自日记,也不是小说。本文介绍了完美主义相关的现象以及完美主义,结合所给选选项,最可能是来自杂志。故选B项。

33.推理判断题。根据The attempt to be perfect is called perfectionism可知有完美主义的人会追求完美,所以有完美主义的人最有可能认同B项(没有最好,只有更好)。故选B项

34.推理判断题。根据第四段中的In a society that overstates mistakes, is it any wonder that so many young people attempt the impossible task of being perfect?可知作者认为在一个夸大错误的社会中,有这么多年轻人尝试完美的完成不可能完成的任务没什么奇怪的。由此推断完美主义的出现部分要归咎于社会。故选 A项。

35.推理判断题。根据最后一段It's our imperfections that make life interesting and they help us grow into a stronger more adaptable person. We don't have to strive to achieve the impossible.可知作者认为正是我们的不完美之处让生活变得有趣,帮助我们成长为一个更强大,更有适应能力的人。我们不必努力实现不可能。这说明作者认为不完美是我们生活的一部分,故选B项。

推理判断题着重考查学生归纳概括、逻辑推理等综合能力,要求考生根据文章表面的文字信息,推断出作者没有提到的或者没有明说的事实或隐含信息。这类题的题干中往往会出现implies / suggests (暗示), inferred (推断) ,conclude (得出结论)等词。解决此类题要注意:一是与原文相同的细节不能选;二是不能跳出文章做推断。解题过程中只要注意上述两点,再结合做细节题和主旨题的方法,即可以做出推理判断题。比如第3小题的题干What can we infer from paragraph 4?就包含了infer,要求学生做出推理判断,其中B选项(More and more people are tolerating mistakes.)在原文根本没有相关信息,跳出了文章,要排除这种选项。

【黑龙江省大庆市铁人中学2020届高三上学期开学】阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C和D)中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

 

A

The Z Hotel is in the heart of London’s West End and has comfortable accommodation in a contemporary design.

All rooms include handcrafted beds, 48-inch Samsung HD TVs with free Sky Sports and Movie channels, and free Wi-Fi. Each room also has under-bed storage for an overnight bag, and wall-mounted hanging space for clothing. The Z Hotel also offers wheelchair accessible rooms.

Continental breakfast is served in The Z Café every morning, including smoked salmon, fresh bread, fresh fruit salad and bacon rolls. A selection of salads, sandwiches and hot dishes are on offer throughout the day.

The hotel is a 5-minute walk from Prince of Wales Theatre and Chinatown London, Leicester Square, Piccadilly Circus and Trafalgar Square. Heathrow Airport can be reached directly from Piccadilly Circus Underground Station.

This is our guests’ favorite part of London, according to independent reviews. This area is also great for shopping, with popular brands nearby: Apple, H&M, Zara, Burberry and Chanel.

The Z Hotel is rated for the best value in London! Guests are getting more for their money when compared to other hotels in this city. Come and stay with us!

Most popular facilities:

◆luggage storage     ◆Heating            ◆Free Wi-Fi  ◆Air conditioning

◆24-hour front desk   ◆Daily maid service   ◆Parking     ◆Lift

Prices:

Room type Prices Options 

Double room--non-smoking £179 ·Non-refundable(不退款) 

·Good Breakfast£9.50 

Twin Room--non-smoking £185 ·Non-refundable 

·Good Breakfast£9.50 

Queen Room --disability access £219 ·Pay at the hotel 

(no prepayment needed) 

·Good Breakfast included 

21.When staying in this hotel, you will enjoy all of the following EXCEPT________.

A. free Wi-Fi B. a TV with some free channels

C. airport pick-up service D. under-bed storage space

22.If a man in a wheelchair wants to stay in this hotel for two nights, he should pay ________.

A. £438 B. £404 C. £358 D. £370

23.From the passage we can learn ________.

A. the hotel is close to Heathrow Airport

B. the hotel serves Chinese-style breakfast

C. the hotel is good value for guests’ money

D. there is a shop with popular brands in the hotel

【答案】21.C22.A23.C

【解析】这是一篇广告布告类阅读。文章介绍了伦敦Z酒店的酒店设施、服务以及价格。

21.细节理解题。答案定位在第二段All rooms include handcrafted beds, 48-inch Samsung HD TVs with free Sky Sports and Movie channels, and free Wi-Fi. Each room also has under-bed storage for an overnight bag, and wall-mounted hanging space for clothing.可知住在这家旅馆时,不包括机场接送服务,故选C。

22.细节理解题。根据Prices 表格中Queen Room—disability access    £219,219*2=438,故选A。

23.推理判断题。根据The Z Hotel is rated for the best value in London! Guests are getting more for their money when compared to other hotels in this city.(Z饭店被评为伦敦最有价值的饭店。与这个城市的其他旅馆相比,客人们的钱花得更值。)由此推知这家旅馆物有所值,故选C。

B

Actors Keira Knightley and Kristen Bell have both commented on their worries about using Disney princesses as role models for their children. 

On a famous talk show, Knightley said her daughter (who was born in 2015) was “banned” from watching Cinderella, which Disney produced as a cartoon in 1950 and a live-action film in 2015. “Cinderella waits around for a rich guy to rescue her. Don’t. Rescue yourself! Obviously.”

Knightley added that she had also forbidden The Little Mermaid, the 1989 cartoon. “This is the one that I’m quite annoyed about because I really like the film. I mean, the songs are great, but do not give up your voice for a man. Well, that’s a little difficult to handle, but I’m keeping to it.”

Bell, the star of Frozen, expressed her disapproval of the Snow White fairytale, which became a classic Disney cartoon in 1938. In an interview with parents, Bell said: “I look at my girls and ask, ‘Don’t you think it’s very unusual that Snow White didn’t ask the old witch why she needed to eat the apple? Or where she got that apple?’ I say, ‘I would never take food from a stranger, would you?’ And my kids respond, ‘No!’ And I think I’m doing something right.”

Bell, who played a Disney princess in Frozen, said she also used the story to illustrate issues about permission. She says that she asked her children: “Don’t you think that it’s very strange that the prince kisses Snow White without her permission? … Because you cannot kiss someone if they’re sleeping!”

Bell later responded to criticism on social media. To one user she wrote: “Everything is a message to our children, because they are sponges(海绵) that soak up everything and are learning how to be adults through what they see. I want my girls to see and practice critical thinking and respectful behavior.”

24.Why did Knightley stop her daughter from watching The Little Mermaid?

A. Because Knightley disliked it.

B. Because the little mermaid was tricky.

C. Because the film showed wrong values.

D. Because the songs in the film were annoying.

25.What can we infer about Bell from Paragragh 4?

A. Bell thought Snow White behaved well.

B. Bell didn’t know how to persuade her kids.

C. Bell wanted her kids to learn from Snow White.

D. Bell believed her kids should be critical about the film.

26.What qualities do Knightley and Bell expect their children to have?

A. curious and hard-working.

B. smart and generous.

C. independent and good-mannered.

D. critical and proud.

27.What can be a suitable title for the text?

A. Say No to Disney Princesses B. Rescue Yourselves

C. Doing Something Right D. Practise Critical Thinking

【答案】24.C25.D26.C27.A

C

When you need a job very much, you may end up taking one for which you are over qualified. Although you were initially grateful just to have the work, you now feel bored and depressed. Is there any way to change that? 

Start by changing your opinion, says Caitlin Kelly, the author of Malled, a book based on her experience as a sales clerk after losing her job in journalism. “Don’t focus on what you’re not getting but what you are getting,” she says. “Be patient and work attentively with a wide range of people. It doesn’t matter what the job is –there are always things you can learn and skills you can develop.” 

Hilary Pearl, the founder of a coaching firm, says, “Tell yourself the current situation isn’t the end of your career. Don’t overdramatize(过分夸大)the negative aspects but try to view the situation more philosophically: life has a series of stages, and this is one of them. Don’t forget to study even in the worst stage.” 

Consider that because you’re overqualified, you may be able to learn or do things on the job that might not have been possible in a more demanding position, says Sarah Hathorn, the chief executive of Illustra Consulting. “You could spend your extra time in learning different aspects of the business and teaching others in the organization,” she says. 

Is it possible to make your work more challenging, even if your job responsibilities aren’t likely to change? 

Of course, you may seek tasks and responsibilities that force you to learn something new or to work harder. “You may be operating on autopilot(习惯性地)right now, but chances are that people above you are stressed,” Sarah Hathorn says. “ Take things off your boss’s plate and let him know which projects or tasks you want to learn more about.” 

Always express your request positively, saying that you love new challenges, rather than complaining that you’re bored and underused, says Ethun, the president of the Park Avenue Group. In your down time, educate yourself about the company and its industry. “Read corporate information, analyst reports and related news articles,” she says. “If your boss accepts your suggestions, it will make you a more valuable employee.”

28.According to Caitlin Kelly, ______.

A. one should be willing to do some small things

B. being a salesman is not as important as being a journalist

C. performing your regular duties well is important

D. doing a simple job well will bring you a sense of success

29.What Hilary Pearl intends to express is that ______.

A. work is just a stage of our whole life

B. the present job doesn’t matter to us in a long run

C. one should be satisfied with his present situation

D. one should look forward instead of complaining about the present situation

30.The underlined words “take things off your boss’s plate” mean______.

A. draw your boss’s attention

B. share your boss’s burdens

C. give your boss useful advice

D. ask your boss for a better position

31.What is the common view about careers of the people mentioned in this passage?

A. One should start his career from doing a simple job.

B. One should improve himself and help others as well.

C. One should keep learning new things to improve himself.

D. One should pay much attention to the relationship with the boss.

【答案】28.C29.D30.B31.C

D

       Public Health England (PHE) is targeting pizzas, ready meals, ready meat and takeaways. The government has also required the food industry to start using healthier food and encourage the public to opt for lower calorie foods.

       It is all part of an effort to cut calorie (卡路里) intake by 20% by 2024. The target will point to 13 different food groups, which are equal to about a fifth of the calorie taken by children. If action is not taken, PHE said, it would be prepared to ask the government to pass laws.

       PHE would be strictly monitoring progress by looking at which products people were buying and would be prepared to punish companies which do not take their duties. The government is also organizing a program encouraging adults to consume (消耗) 400 calories at breakfast and 600 each at lunch and dinner.

       At present, adults consume between 200 and 300 calories more than they should each day. PHE chief nutritionist Dr Alison Redstone said the 400-600-600 tip would make it easier for “people to make healthier choices" by being able to judge what they should be eating in each sitting.

       How many calories should we eat? It is suggested that women eat no more than 2,000 calories a day, while men should limit their intake to 2,500. For children, it depends on age. A four-year-old should consume no more than 1,300, while for teens aged 17 and 18, it is about 3,000, but overweight children are eating up to 500 calories more than that.

       Prof Russell Viner, of the Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health, said it was a necessary move. He said, "Over the past 40 years, there had been a slow growth in food sizes, with pizzas and hamburgers simply much bigger than they were in our parents' time." The convenience of fast food at pocket money prices and the advertisement of unhealthy food and drinks to children add to the problem.

32.What does the underlined word "opt" in Paragraph 1 mean?

A. Sell. B. Produce. C. Choose. D. Inspect.

33.What will happen to a company if it encourages high calorie food?

A. It will be punished by customers.

B. It will be forced to stop producing foods.

C. It will be punished by Public Health England.

D. It will be asked to throw away all the food.

34.Which of the following people should take in the most calories?

A. Teens aged 18. B. Babies.

C. Middle-aged women. D. Old men.

35.What can be inferred from the text?

A. The government has passed laws about eating healthier food.

B. PHE is concerned about the British health problems.

C. Hamburgers are not bigger than before.

D. Men should eat no more than 2,000 calories a day.

【答案】32.C33.C34.A35.B

【解析】这是一篇夹叙夹议的文章。文章主要讲了英国公共卫生部门要求食品行业开始使用更健康的食品,并鼓励公众选择低卡路里食品。

32.词义猜测题。划线词所在的句子The government has also required the food industry to start using healthier food and encourage the public to opt for lower calorie foods.意思是政府还要求食品行业开始使用更健康的食品,并鼓励公众选择低卡路里食品。“opt”意思是选择,故选C。

33.细节理解题。根据第三段PHE would be strictly monitoring progress by looking at which products people were buying and would be prepared to punish companies which do not take their duties.可知如果一个公司鼓励高热量食物,它将受到英国公共卫生部门的惩罚,故选C。

34.细节理解题。倒数第二段It is suggested that women eat no more than 2,000 calories a day, while men should limit their intake to 2,500. For children, it depends on age. A four-year-old should consume no more than 1,300, while for teens aged 17 and 18, it is about 3,000, but overweight children are eating up to 500 calories more than that.(建议女性每天摄入的热量不要超过2000卡路里,而男性应该限制在2500卡路里。对于孩子来说,这取决于年龄。一个4岁的孩子摄入的热量应该不超过1300卡路里,而对于17岁和18岁的青少年,这个数字大约是3000卡路里,但是超重的孩子摄入的热量要比这个数字多500卡路里。)由此可知,18岁的青少年应该摄入最多的卡路里,故选A。

35.推理判断题。答案定位在第三段PHE would be strictly monitoring progress by looking at which products people were buying and would be prepared to punish companies which do not take their duties.(公共卫生部门将通过观察人们购买哪些产品来严格监控进展,并准备惩罚那些不履行职责的公司。)由此推断出公共卫生部门关注英国人的健康问题,故选B。

词义猜测题是高考阅读理解中常考题型之一,可以大致分为

① 定义猜词,可以根据定义信息和举例猜测词义。如文中常用refer to,be called或that’s to say,such as等。

② 逻辑猜词可以根据同义词、反义词、因果关系词等猜测词义,例如,similarly,the same as,but,however,while,on the other hand,since ,because等,所猜词与这些提示词前/后面部分的含义一样、相反或是前因后果。

③ 语法猜词,可以根据构词法,再结合上下文进行猜词。

④ 语境猜词,猜测词义离不开上下文的语境,通过上下文提供的情景和线索进行合理的分析,同时还要关注其所在的整段及整篇文章。

⑤ 指代猜词即找出人称代词、指示代词、关系代词或关系副词等所指代的内容,做题时要注意指代词的位置,以便于判断,然后用所找的指代内容替换划线代词,核实其逻辑、意义、位置等是否一致,最后比较所找部分与选项,确定意思最接近的选项。

如第一小题,划线词所在的句子The government has also required the food industry to start using healthier food and encourage the public to opt for lower calorie foods.意思是政府还要求食品行业开始使用更健康的食品,并鼓励公众选择低卡路里食品。“opt”意思是选择,故选C。

 

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