备考2020高考英语书面表达图表类

来源:备战2020年高考英语之书面表达 作者:高考提分狙击手 时间:2020-08-06 10:01 点击:

书面表达图表类

 

 

图表作文要求将图表形式的信息转化成段落文字信息。信息以图表的形式呈现出来,考生需要弄清所给的图表、数据、标题及文字说明等各种信息之间的关系,通过分析、研究提炼和确定文章的中心思想,得出令人信服的结论。图表作文中所说的图主要有曲线图、饼状图和柱状图等;而表则一般是统计表。

 

图表类书面表达常以曲线图形式、流程图形式、柱形图形式、饼式图形式、数据表格形式及平面图形式出现。这类题型具有文字少、信息简洁、要点分散等特征。图表类书面表达在近年的高考中时有出现,主要是一些关于情况调查、生产、销售、发展进程等各种项目统计的示意图。这类统计图在日常生活中应用得非常广泛,因此,读懂它并能用英语清晰地表述出来具有很强的现实意义。图表作文主要是介绍或说明某方面的情况,文体上属于说明文。考生应按照说明文的形式和特点来进行写作。由于这类试题文字少、信息简洁,如果只是把图表中的内容一点一点地记叙出来,进行清单式的罗列,就会索然乏味,并且达不到字数要求。因此,对于这类形式的书面表达,考生首先要根据图表前的文字说明,弄清楚图表的性质、内容、规律,并做到如下几点:

1.细读图表,抓住特征

图表中的数据信息往往较多,首先要读懂其中的符号和数字所代表的意思。然后,从图表的整体着手,认真分析各项数据,抓住其主要特征,弄懂它们所揭示的规律。经常使用的词汇有:table,chart,figure,graph,describe,tell,show,represent等。

2.认真审读,确定主题

认真审读试题所提供的数据信息,结合文字提示,确定短文的主题。短文的主题往往隐含在图表中,需要考生从图表数据中概括出事情或事件的规律和特征,然后归纳出主题。有时,试题给出了短文的题目,也就等于为考生点明了主题。

3.巧用数据,突出主题

引用数据说明基本趋势,比较数据揭示基本特征。由于图表中的数据信息较多,写作时要巧妙地引用一些数据来说明主题,不要作任何发挥。表达时,既要包含所有要点,但又不能面面俱到。经常使用的词汇有:rise,drop,reduce,increase,decrease,fall,while,but,on the contrary,however,compare...to/with...,in contrast to,as...as,the same as,similar to,different from,difference between,among,more than,less than等。

4.词句多变,表达灵活

由于图表数据比较单调,很容易使人选用相同的词语和句式进行表达,结果文章显得很乏味。因此,写作时要尽量避免重复使用同一词语或句型,选择一些异曲同工的词语和句式来表达。

5.适当发挥,表明观点

图表类书面表达有时要求考生在对数据进行分析、对比后,简单地谈谈自己的看法或提出建议,这属于让考生自主发挥的部分,更是短文最精彩的部分。考生要在该部分陈述自己的看法,表明自己的观点,提出解决问题的方法或建议。表述观点时,可以引用人们普遍的观点,也可说出自己独到的见解。借题发挥时,不可偏离主题,只要把观点表述清楚即可,不必作更多的解释或说明。经常使用的词有:in a word,in short, generally speaking,It’s clear from the chart that...,we can draw the conclusion that...,we can learn/know...等。

 

一、写作技巧

对于图表作文,写作内容主要包括三个方面:描述图表信息+从中总结出变化规律+提出建议或解决 之道(这一部分可以根据实际要求进行取舍)。 

准备过程中,应着重从以下几个方面入手。

1. 读出图表所传达的信息,并对信息进行分类 

将图表所传达的信息进行全面的转换,并根据不同的项目对信息进行分类,这是进行数据整合的基础, 这一过程中要尽量确保信息全面。 

2. 整合信息,总结规律/分析原因 

信息经过分类之后,以某一个标准为参照(比如时间、地域等),总结出同一对象在不同时间/地域/…… 下的变化规律,或通过对同类信息的对比分析出问题出现的原因。找出规律/原因是解决问题/提出建议的基础。 

3. 数据处理

对数据进行处理时,要根据题干的要求,着重处理差异比较大或变化比较明显的信息。这样呈现数据时才能有所侧重,写的时候才能有详略之分。 

4. 段落构建 

一般而言,图表作文可分为三个段落来写。第一个段落点明调查/统计对象并进行图表信息的转换,转 换过程中需要注意的是信息的取舍和详略程度。第二段主要是根据信息总结出规律或找出问题出现的原因。 第三段则主要是建议的提出或解决方法的提出。其中第一段和第二段是重点段落,第三段可根据题干要求 进行取舍。 

 

二、常用词汇

1. 点明图表所反映的主题时常用的词汇: 

table 表格,chart 图表,diagram 图解/示意图,figure图形/数字,describe 描述,tell 告诉,show 表明, represent 描绘/展示,indicate 显示

2. 分析数据差异及变化趋势时常用的词汇: 

(1)表示上升或增加的:rise, increase, go up

(2)表示下降或减少的:decrease, fall, reduce, decline, drop, go down

(3)表示变化特点的:sharply 急剧地,quickly 迅速地,rapidly 快速地,dramatically 戏剧性地,slowly 缓慢地,gradually 逐渐地。 

(4)表示比较的:compared different from, difference between, while, contrary, however, more than, less than。

三、常用句式 

1. 点明主题时:

I have recently made/conducted/carried out a survey about... among... 

Last week, we made/conducted/carried out a survey on…

A survey has been made/conducted/carried out on…

2. 呈现数据/分析原因时:

(1)呈现数据: 

The above table/chart/graph shows that…

As can be seen from the pie chart... 

From the table/chart/graph we can see…

(2)分析原因:

There are several reasons that account for this phenomenon.

A number of factors account for (contribute to/lead to/result in) the change (phenomenon/increase). 

The main reason for such a change is... 

3. 发表看法/提出建议时: 

Personally/In my opinion/As far as I’m concerned/From my point of view... 

It is high time that we... 

四、写作模板 

Recently a survey has been done to find out_________(所要表达的主题)。As is shown in the pie chart_________(表中的内容一),________(表中的内容二),________(表中的内容三) and ________(表中的内容四).

In conclusion, the survey shows that_________(总体规律、趋势或呈现的问题)。Many factors contribute to the problem. One is that ___________(原因一). Another is that________(原因二).

In my opinion_________(自己的观点)。 

 

 

题组一(高考真题)

Writing 1(2017·江苏卷)

请认真阅读下面有关我国电影票房收入(box-office income)的柱状图及相关文字,并按照要求用英语写一篇150词左右的文章。

 

 

One Day in 2016. At Home.

Son: Mum, shall we go and see a film tonight?

Mother: Why bother? We can stay at home and watch films online. It’s convenient with our new and faster network

Son: But it feels good in a cinema.

Mother: And the price… We have to pay 50 yuan a ticket.

Son: Only 10 yuan more than last year.

Mother: But still we cannot get the money’s worth. Some films are just boring…

【写作内容】

1. 用约30个单词概述柱状图信息的主要内容;

2. 我国电影票房收入变化的原因有哪些,简要谈谈你的看法(上述对话仅供参考,原因不少于两点);

3. 谈谈你对我国电影票房收入走向的看法,并简要说明理由。

【写作要求】

1. 写作过程中不能直接引用原文语句;

2. 作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称;

3. 不必写标题。

【评分标准】

内容完整,语言规范,语篇连贯,词数适当。

 

Writing 2(2016·上海卷)

Directions:  Write an English composition in 120–150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.

   假设你是中华中学学生姚平,最近参加了一项研究性学习调研,课题为"父母是否以子女为荣"。通过调研你校学生及其父母,结果发现双方对此问题的看法有差异(数据如图所示)。根据图表写一份报告,在报告中,你必须:

1.描述调研数据;

2.分析可能导致这一结果的原因。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Writing 3(2015·江苏卷)

请阅读下面文字及图表,并按照要求用英语写一篇150词左右的文章。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

【写作内容】

1.用约30个单词概述上述信息的主要内容;

2.结合上述信息,简要分析导致交通问题的主要原因;

3.根据你的分析,从社会规范(rules and regulations)和个人行为两方面谈谈你得到的启示(不少于两点)。

【写作要求】

1.写作过程中不能直接引用原文语句;

2.作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称;

3.不必写标题。

【评分标准】

内容完整,语言规范,语篇连贯,词数适当。

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题组二(2名校模拟题)

Writing1(2020届上海华师大二附中高三开学考试)

Directions: Write an English composition in 120-150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.

近期,你就影响选择大学的考虑因素在高三学生中做了调研,结果如图所示,请结合图表信息,写一份调研报告,内容必须包括:

1) 说明图表反应的基本内容,

2) 列出你认为相对重要的两项因素(影响你自己选择大学的考虑因素)并说明原因。

 

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Writing2(2020届宁夏银川一中高考模拟)

 

近期,某校组织高三学生进行了一场讨论。主题是:高三年级要不要集中进行晚自习。根据下图提供的信息,写一篇英语短文,客观地介绍一下讨论的情况,注意要涵盖所有要点。

 

注意:

1. 词数不少于100(开头和结尾已给出,但不计入总词数);

2. 可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。

晚自习evening self-study

Recently there was a heated discussion among Senior 3 students in our school. 

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Yours sincerely,

Li Hua

 

Writing3(安徽省淮北市第一中学高三最后一卷)

假定你是李华,计划高三毕业后的暑假,找份兼职工作。下面的招聘广告引起了你的注意,请根据要点(箭头所指内容)写一封申请信。

 

注意:

1.词数100左右;

2.可适当增加细节使行文连贯。

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Writing 4(浙江省金华十校高三高考模拟考试)

你校的英国姊妹学校将于本周来校访问交流,假如你是校学生会主席李华,请你用英语准备一份讲话稿,向交流团师生介绍一日活动安排,内容如下:

时间 地点 内容

上午 报告厅 校史介绍

校园 参观校园

下午 操场 中英学生足球赛

晚上 学校湖边 英语晚会

注意:

1.词数100左右;

2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。

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Writing 5(江苏省启东中学高三月考)

你们学校学生会最近组织了一次"有烦恼时向谁倾诉?"的调查活动。请根据以下的调查数据,用英语给校报写一篇新闻稿,反映调查结果。

倾诉对象 同学和朋友 老师和家长 没有

百分比 61% 22% 17%

理由 同龄人容易交流和理解 老师家长阅历丰富,有生活和教育经验 不愿和别人说自己的事或难以与别人相处

 

注意:1.词数100左右;

2.信的开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。

Dear Editor,

Recently the Student Union carried out a survey,the title of which is "To whom do you go to when in trouble?" The results are as follows.

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Yours sincerely,

The Student Union

 

 

 

 

题组一 

Writing 1

【写作指导】考查任务型读写。此类作文对考生的能力要求极高。首先考生要以30词左右概述短文内容。接下来要分析票房收入变化的原因并给出自己的看法,并谈谈自己对票房走向的看法。作文以第三人称和一般现在时为主。

要点:

1. 概述:中国电影票房在2012—2016年间呈现不断增长的趋势,但是2016年的增长相比于前几年很缓慢。

2. 分析原因:票房增长与人们生活水平的不断提高息息相关,人们有了多余的钱,才可能消费、娱乐;另一方面,电影的制作技术日臻成熟,许多优质的电影不断上映;再者,互联网的普及无疑起到了很大的宣传作用。

3. 看法和理由:票房增速将会小幅上涨或有所回落。只要给出恰当的理由,对票房看涨或是看落皆可。

写30词的概述时,语言要简练、不拖沓。遣词造句要符合英语的表达习惯,尽量用上定语从句、状语从句和非谓语动词与倒装句等语法和句型。同时注意语句的连贯性。

【参考范文】

Possible version one:

 The box-office income of Chinese movies witnessed a constant increase from about 17 billion yuan in 2012 to over 40 billion in 2015. However, that increase slowed down in 2016.

The reasons behind this are various. The fast economic development before 2016 was probably the most powerful engine driving the constant growth in the box-office income. The application of new technologies and the wide appeal of movie stars could also account for the increase. However, China saw a decline in its economic growth rate last year. And the Internet increased options for movie lovers. Consequently, some viewers began to turn away from cinemas, leading to a slower growth.

China’s economy is expected to grow at a medium speed in the coming years, so an increase is possible in the investment in the movie industry and the number of quality movies. Therefore, its box-office income will probably enjoy a slight increase. (150 words)

Possible version two:

 As is indicated in the graph, the box-office income of Chinese films increased constantly from 2012 to 2015, but its growth, for one reason or another, slowed down in 2016.

The increase in the box-office income can be attributed to a number of factors. The quality of life has improved and watching films is regarded as a good means of entertainment. Besides, filming technology has advanced and more quality films are on offer. Moreover, the Internet plays an important part. On the Internet, people can seek information about their favorite stars and buy tickets at a discount as well, which is both time-saving and economical.

However, the film market may witness a slowdown in the near future. Cinemas have gradually given way to the rise of the Internet and cellphones, and the ticket price is on the increase. Therefore, the film industry should make greater efforts to attract more viewers. (150 words)

Writing 2

【写作指导】

本试题属于图表类调查报告。尽管题干给出了一些要点,同时对报告内容作了详细的要求,但是对考生的识图能力、总结概括能力还是提出了很高的要求,尤其是分析原因这一方面使本试题可以规划为半开放式的文章。通过审题我么可以知道文章结构很简单。第一段重点对调研数据进行描述;第二段分析可能导致这一结果的原因。

【参考范文】

Recently, I took part in an inquiry learning research, whose topic is whether parents are proud of their children. After doing the research into the students in my school and their parents, I found that there is a big difference between the two sides. 80% of the parents think that they are proud of their children while 60% of the students think that their parents are proud of them. 

As far as I am concerned, the reasons why the parents and their children have different opinions on the same question are as follows. Firstly, there is only one child in most families. Therefore, the parents pay more attention to their children than themselves. Secondly, the children are accustomed to the love given by their parents. Thirdly, the children are not confident of themselves thinking that they are not excellent to make their parents proud of them.

Writing 3

【写作指导】

写作前,考生应该先认真分析材料。写作时,注意第一段用30个单词概括材料内容,第二段写导致交通问题的原因;第三段从社会规则和个人行为入手进行现象分析,从中得到启示。词数在150左右,以一般现在时作为中心时态,内容健康向上,情节完整,书写工整,卷面保持整洁。为使行文紧凑,过渡自然,可在文中穿插使用一些过渡性词汇或短语。

推荐用语:not only...but also; threaten; quite a few; give rise to; in spite of; because of; the number of; what’s worse; in fact; related to; keep... in order

【参考范文】

The traffic issue is a hard nut to crack. It not only affects our everyday life, but may also threaten people’s lives. The three selections presented above are typical examples.

Quite a few things give rise to the traffic problem. In spite of the large-scale construction of roads and highways, there is still much room for improvement, because of the ever increasing number of cars these years. What’s worse, some drivers, cyclists and pedestrians do not think it vital to obey traffic rules.

In fact, traffic rules are part of the rules and regulations closely related to public order. Without them, people could not enjoy harmony or the country would be in chaos. But rules alone don’t secure an orderly society. It is the people who obey the rules that matter. It is everybody’s duty to observe them to keep our society in order and being on the right track.

题组二 

Writing1

【范文】

A Survey on Choosing A College

Nowadays, more and more senior high school students pay much attention to choosing the most ideal college of their own in order to get a better education. There are many factors that they should take into consideration. In this context, a survey have been conducted to figure out the main factors affecting students’ decisions.

From the histogram, four factors are listed. We can see that the interest of majors is a factor that most students consider first, 175 students has chosen it. Then the fame of a college comes to the second place, 150 student agree with it. Thirdly, 90 students believes that reasonable charges are very important for them to make up their mind. Last but not least, 70 students regard the convenient traffic as an necessary factor to choose a college.

   As far as I’m concerned, I will allow for the interest of majors and reasonable charges when choosing a college. For one thing, interest plays a big part in motivating a student to study further; for another thing, reasonable charges can make a student not worry heavy economic burden.

All in all, every student should make their decisions seriously when choosing a college.

Writing2

【范文】

Recently there was a heated discussion among Senior 3 students in our school. The students were questioned whether they were willing to have the evening self-study at school or not. Here is the result according to the survey.

60 percent of the students think it’s a good idea to have the evening self-study at school. They think they can do better in their study with the help of the teachers. Also, they can concentrate on their lessons better in the classroom and with company of their fellow classmates. There are 25 percent of the students who think they prefer to study at home. They suppose that they may get disturbed by others and there are possible dangers on their way home alone. At the same time, still 15 percent of the students don’t have a clear answer to the question. They say they will go to school to have evening self-study if they are asked to, but they promise they can also do well at home.

Writing 3

Dear Mr. Smith,

I’ve read your advertisement for an assistant teacher for a children’s summer camp. I’m very interested in this position and I think my personality and experience will qualify me for the job.

To begin with, I gain much experience of working with children from my part-time job as a babysitter. Besides, I have been a helpful assistant for both my English teacher and my classmates. More importantly, I can speak English fluently, which will help me work with native teachers from England. I will be available for the work on evenings and weekends and can start working from the end of this term. I would really appreciate it if you could give me this opportunity.

Looking forward to your early reply.

Yours,

Li Hua

Writing 4

Dear friends,

Welcome to our school! I am Li Hua, chairman of the students’ union. I am greatly honored to receive you here. Here is a schedule for your visit.

In the morning you will be shown around our school and listen to an introduction of the school history in the lecture hall. After lunch, there’ll be a football match between British and Chinese students on the playground. Students from both of our schools are welcome to join in. In the evening, we’ll have a party by the school lake.

Wish you to have lots of fun here!

Thank you!

Writing 5

Dear Editor, 

Recently the Student Union carried out a survey,the title of which is "To whom do you go to when in trouble?" The results are as follows.

61% of the students surveyed go to friends and classmates as their ideal listeners when they have trouble. The primary reason lies in the fact that they have a better understanding of each other(用动词understand和表语从句改写:1.The primary reason is that they better understand each other) so they can communicate well with each other. Another 22% choose parents and teachers to talk to for in their opinion,teachers and parents are rich in life and education experience and they can offer them practical advice on how to deal with the trouble(改为简单句:2.teachers and parents are rich in life and education experience,offering them practical advice on how to deal with the trouble).However, 17% don’t tell their trouble to anyone. For one thing,they don’t want to share their inner thoughts with others. For another thing,they find it hard to get along well with others(用neither... nor...改写成倒装句:3.Neither do they want to share their inner thoughts with others and nor do they get along well with others).

Yours sincerely,

The Student Union

 

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