学生版 Book 8 Unit 22 environmental protection

来源:英语辅导 作者:高中辅导 时间:2019-02-16 09:11 点击:

Ⅰ.核心必记单词

1.trap vt.使困住;n.陷阱;圈套

2.reserve n.保护区;v.保护;保留;预订→reservation n.保护;保留;预订→reserved adj.预订的,保留的

3.principle n.原则,道德准则

4.beyond prep.超出

5.refer v.指,意即→reference n.提到,谈及;参考,查阅

6.agriculture n.农业→agricultural adj.农业的;农艺的

7.recycle vt.回收利用

8.threaten vt.威胁→threat n.威胁

9.seize vt.依法没收;(用武力)夺取

10.arm vt.武装

11.rough adj.艰难的;粗糙的→roughly adv.粗糙地;概略地

12.separation n.分离,分开→separate adj.分开的;v.分离,分开

13.means n.方法

14.construct vt.建造→construction n.建造

15.adopt vt.采用;收养→adoption n.采用;收养

16.politics n.政治(活动)→political adj.政治的→politician n.政治家

 

Ⅱ.阅读识记单词

17.conservation n.保护→conserve vt.保护;保存

18.relevant adj.有关的→relevantly adv.有关地;得要领地→relevance n.相关

19.coincidence n.巧合

20.condemn vt.迫使(某人)陷入不幸的境地;谴责

21.sacrifice vt.&vi.牺牲;献出

22.advocate vt.主张,提倡

23.substitute n.代替品,代用品; v.(用……)代替

24.behalf n.代表

25.changeable adj.多变的→change v.& n.改变

26.slide vi.滑行;滑动; vt.使滑动

27.mountainous adj.多山的

28.flee vi.&vt.逃走

29.potential n.可能性;潜在性→potentially adv.潜在地;可能地

30.considerate adj.想得周到的,体贴的→consider vt.考虑→consideration n.考虑

31.finance n.资金→financial adj.财务的;金融的

32.allocate vt.分配,配给→allocation n.分配,配给

33.fragile adj.易毁的;脆弱的

34.sharpen vt.削尖→sharp adj.尖的,锋利的→sharpener n.卷笔刀

35.valid adj.有充分理由的;有效的;合法的→validly adv.合法地;正当地

36.calculate vt.计算,算出→calculation n.计算→calculator n.计算器

 

语境活用 [用所给词的正确形式填空]

1.Henry was forced to leave his motherland for political (politics) reasons.

2.The schools must adopt(adoption) new methods of teaching foreign languages.

3.The world is changeable,and everything is changing.(change)

4.She is so considerate that she has not only considered her own affairs but taken mine into consideration.(consider)

5.The number of the unemployed is on the rise owing to the financial(finance) crisis.

6.However,we are not all using the same reference(refer) standard to weigh risks and rewards.(2016·北京)

7.Tourists are required to make reservations(reserve) in advance.

8.The loss of glaciers(冰川) there due to global warming represents an enormous threat(threaten) to agriculture.

9.The trip they took me on was a rough(roughly) one.(2017·全国Ⅰ)

10.The total rise in agricultural(agriculture) incomes in rich countries is greater than the fall in poor ones.(2016·江苏)

11.It’s difficult to pick up radio programs in the mountainous(mountain) areas.

12.A pencil sharpener is a device that can be used to sharpen a pencil.(sharp)

 

 

1.a number of一些,许多

2.beyond one’s control超出/不受……的控制

3.look ahead展望未来

4.refer to查阅;参考;指的是;提及;涉及

5.in turn依次;轮流;反过来,转而

6.lead to导致;通向;引起

7.take action采取行动

8.ahead of在……前面

9.apart from除……以外

10.answer for(对已产生的不良后果)负责任

11.call for an end to sth.要求结束……

12.or else否则,不然

13.wrap up结束;席卷而去;包起来

14.on one’s behalf代表……

15.for good永远

16.carry off掠走,夺走

17.all in all总的来说

18.result in导致

19.earn one’s/a living谋生

20.plug one’s ears塞住耳朵

21.all the best祝一切顺利

22.sum up总结,概括

23.as a matter of fact实际上

 

24.break away from摆脱,脱离(某种思想体系、团体、组织)

 

语境活用 [选用上述黑体短语的正确形式填空]

1.The increase in the box-office income can be attributed to a number of factors.

2.Apart from singing a song,he told a joke.

3.I thought we’d be late for the concert,but we ended up getting there ahead of time.

4.Professional football players  earn a/their living by playing football.

5.After the bell rang,the pupils walked out of the classroom in turn.

6.If you go on doing this,we won’t answer for the consequences.

7.I was encouraged to break away from old forms and rules.

8.Looking ahead,we are full of confidence and joy.

9.We can sum up the main points of the lesson in three sentences.

10.The matter you referred to at the meeting needs settling at once.

11.His success doesn’t  lie in his cleverness.Working hard leads to his progress.

12.You have to take action and deal with problems as they arise.

 

1.“各行各业”的名词

(1)agriculture农业

(2)industry 工业

(3)business 商业

(4)fishing 渔业

2.“主张、建议和要求”动词集锦

advocate,insist,suggest,advise,propose,ask,demand,require,request

3.与“环境”有关的词汇

(1)species n.物种

(2)reserve n.保护区

(3)atmosphere n.大气层

(4)conservation n.保护

(5)recycle v.回收利用

(6)ecology n.生态(学)

4.“实际上”短语大全

(1)as a matter of fact

(2)in fact

(3)in truth

(4)in reality

(5)in effect

5.“负责”短语全接触

(1)answer for

(2)be responsible for

(3)take responsibility for

(4)in charge of

 

 

1.现在完成时

In the last few decades,scientists have reached consensus and reported that human beings are causing changes in the Earth’s climate...

在过去的几十年里,科学家们一致认为,人类正在造成地球气候的变化……

句式仿写 在过去的几年里,我不仅在身体上而且在心智上成长了。(2017·全国Ⅲ)

I have grown not only physically,but also mentally in the past few years.

2.without引导的含蓄虚拟条件句

Without these naturally occurring gases,the sun’s rays would bounce back into space leaving the Earth cold and impossible to live on.

如果没有这些自然产生的气体,太阳的光线将会被反射回太空中去,那么地球将处于寒冷之中,而使生物不可能在地球上存活。

句式仿写 没有规则,我们的社会将处于混乱中。

Without rules,our society would be in chaos.

3.given用作介词或连词,表示“鉴于;考虑到;倘若”

Given this data,it seems that the link between human activities and rising global temperatures is not merely a coincidence.

鉴于这些数据,似乎人类活动与正在升高的全球温度之间的关联并不仅仅是巧合。

句式仿写 考虑到他的年龄,他做得相当好。

Given his age,he did it quite well.

4.see表示“经历,见证,目睹”

The last few years have seen environmental disasters on a grand scale,and experts are predicting far worse to come.

在过去的几年里,人们已经经历了大规模的环境灾难,专家们预测更为严重的灾难即将来临。

句式仿写 历史见证了在世界的每种主要语言中莎士比亚那无尽的作品。(2015·重庆)

History has witnessed the endless productions of Shakespearean plays in every major language of the world.

5.There has/have been...

There has been terrible flooding in Asia,Africa,America and Oceania.

亚洲、非洲、美洲和大洋洲都发生过可怕的洪涝灾害。

句式仿写 最近在餐饮服务业有一个低脂肪少盐的趋势。(2017·全国Ⅰ)

There has been a recent trend in the food service industry toward lower fat content and less salt.

 

Ⅰ.阅读理解

A

(2017·河南百校联盟联考)

Where to Drink

Cafe San Bernardo

Join table-tennis and pool-playing port.Cafe San Bernardo has been running since 1912.The Villa Crespo dive bar also offers up table football for £4 an hour.Service is efficient with last orders at 5 am.The daily happy hour between 6 pm and 9 pm includes 60 minutes playing your game of choice,plus a half-bottle of red wine and a corn pie,for £9.

·Avenue Corrientes 5436,Villa Crespo,54 11 4855 3956,cafesanbernardo.com

M Salumeria & Enoteca

Trading only in wine with a story,sommelier(侍酒师) Mariana Torta chooses new ways on a daily basis,and keeps a list of around 250 labels.There’s no wine menu—simply take your bottle from the shelf.

·Open 11:00 am—11:30 pm,EI Salvador 5777,Palermo Hollywood,54 11 4778 9016,on Facebook

Negro Cueva de Cafe

Coffee has found its place in Buenos Aires.While LAB:Tostadores,The Shelter and Coffee Town are famous new places,Negro Cueva de Cafe is the best downtown.It serves Ecuadorian,Colombian and Brazilian beans,and its attracting cakes include croissant.

·Open 9:30 am—7:00 pm,Suipacha 637,Microcentro,54 11 4322 3000,negrocuevade-cafe.com

La Calle

Head to the Niceto Vega address and you’ll be faced with a pizza.Don’t worry.It’s the right place.La Guitarrita is the front to “hidden” bar La Calle.Order the house cocktail,special candy,and prepare to sing until dawn with a high-energy young crowd.

·Open 8:00 pm—2:00 am,Niceto Vega 4942,Palermo Soho,54 11 3914 1972,on Facebook

 

1.Which number should you call if you want to do some sports?

A.54 11 4855 3956.  B.54 11 4778 9016.   C.54 11 4322 3000.  D.54 11 3914 1972.

2.When can you go to M Salumeria & Enoteca?

A.All day.     B.1:00 am.      C.10:00 am.    D.3:00 pm.

3.What makes La Calle different?

A.Its having special candy.            B.Its having no wine menu.

C.Its allowing you to play games.      D.Its opening for the longest time.

 

4.What is the author’s purpose in writing the text?

A.To show wine culture.        B.To introduce some wine bars.

C.To help people choose drinks.  D.To show how to enjoy yourself.

 

B

(2018·吉林长春期中)

Most nations have at least one type of food that people from other countries think is unusual or unethical(不道德的) to eat.In France,people eat horse meat and frog legs.In South Korea and parts of China,restaurants serve dog meat.And in Australia,it’s common to cook kangaroo meat on the barbecue and use emu(鸸鹋) eggs to make pancakes.

The kangaroo and emu are native to Australia.Both animals are important to the national image of Australia and appear on the Australian coat of arms.They’re also central figures in the history of the indigenous(土生土长的) Australian Aboriginals(土著人).However,Aboriginal tribes still hunt these animals for their meat,fur and fat.

Today,Australian people continue to eat these animals.One of the reasons people eat kangaroo meat is that it’s high in protein and low in fat,so eating kangaroo is a good option for anyone on a diet.It’s also cheaper to eat kangaroo meat than other red meats.Because of this,a lot of university students choose to buy kangaroo meat.BBC News also reported that Australian scientists believe that eating kangaroo meat is good for the environment—kangaroos have different digestive systems than cows and sheep,meaning they produce less methane(甲烷),the second biggest contributor to global warming.

While emu meat is high in iron and vitamin C,most people don’t think it tastes good.For this reason,they prefer emu eggs.One egg is large enough to make seven omelettes(煎蛋).And while it’s illegal to collect emu eggs from the wild,they can be bought from emu farms.Rather than cracking the beautiful dark shell,it’s better to drain it by putting a small hole at each end and blowing.Afterwards,you can even carve a design into the eggshell.

 

5.The author mentioned the meat-eating customs of different countries at the beginning of the article to         .

A.present different cultures’ meat-eating preferences

B.suggest that people try to understand other countries’ diets

C.introduce the consumption of kangaroo meat and emu eggs in Australia

D.compare different eating habits among different countries

 

6.According to the article,the kangaroo         .

A.is not considered precious in Australia

B.is considered healthy and environmentally friendly to eat

C.faces extinction due to hunting by Aboriginal tribes

D.contains large amounts of iron and vitamins in its meat

 

7.Which of the following statements is TRUE about emu eggs?

A.Emu eggs taste terrible but are nutritious.

B.The shells of emu eggs are not difficult to break.

C.It’s common for Australians to collect emu eggs from the wild.

D.Emu egg shells can be used to create art.

 

C

(2018·中央民族大学附属中学月考)

“Plants were expected to get larger with increased carbon dioxide in atmosphere,but changes in temperature,humidity and nutrient availability seem to have trumped the benefits of increased carbon dioxide,” said researchers from the National University of Singapore.

45 percent of the species studied now reach smaller adult sizes than they did in the past.The researchers pointed out that warmer temperatures and changing habitats,caused by climate change,are possible reasons for shrinking creatures.

“We do not yet know the mechanisms involved,or why some organisms are getting smaller while others are unaffected,” the researchers said.“Until we understand more,we could be risking negative consequences that we can’ t yet quantify.”

The change was big in cold-blooded animals.Only two decades of warmer temperatures were enough to make reptiles smaller.An increase of 1 degree centigrade caused nearly a 10 percent increase in metabolism(新陈代谢).Greater use of energy resulted in tiny tortoises and little lizards.Fish are smaller now too.Though overfishing has played a part in reducing numbers,experiments show that warmer temperatures also stop fish growth.There is a recent report on warmer temperatures’ negative effects on plankton,the base of the marine ecosystem.

Warm-blooded animals weren’t immune from the size change caused by climate change.Many birds are now smaller.Mammals have been miniaturized too.Soay sheep are thinner.Red deer are weaker.And polar bears are smaller,compared with historical records.

This is not the first time this has happened in Earth’ s history.55 million years ago,a warming event similar to the current climate change caused bees,spiders and ants to shrink by 50 to 75 percent over several thousand years.That event happened over a longer time than the current climate change.

The speed of modern climate change could mean organisms may not respond or adapt quickly enough,especially those with long generation times.So,it is likely that more negative influences of climate change will be shown in future.

 

8.The best title for the passage is         .

A.Why Do Some Species Become Smaller?

B.Species Become Smaller with the Climate Getting Warmer

C.How Does Temperature Change in Earth’ s History?

D.Climate Change Has Many Negative Effects

 

9.Researchers from the National University of Singapore believe        .

A.all the animals on the earth have become smaller

B.too many studies on animals’ size have been done

C.how climate change affects animals’ size has not been found clearly

D.people can avoid the negative effects of climate change

 

10.The passage implies         .

A.birds have suffered more from climate change than fish

B.ants,bees and spiders have been shrinking by 50% to 70% in the past decade

C.a warming event causing species to become smaller has never happened before

D.climate change has even a negative impact on plankton

 

11.The author’s attitude to climate change in the passage is         .

A.indifferent  B.Optimistic     C.worried  D.confident

 

 

Ⅱ.七选五

(2018·山西运城期中)

Camping without a campfire is not camping at all.Late-night conversations and games around the campfire are essential for a pleasant camping experience.However,you ought to be aware of the fact that camping with a campfire is not all about fun.  12   If you are planning to set up a campfire,or if you are planning to cook during camping,you should remember some fire safety tips.

Choose a campsite which has a campfire pit(深坑).  13   If there is no fire pit,set up your own.However,you should be careful not to place the fire pit near your camping tent.When you set up a campfire,make sure that you put the campfire materials in the right order.This can help you make sure that there will be no flying debris(碎片) once you light your fire.Put the light materials first such as paper or dry leaves.  14   Finally,make sure that you place stones around the campfire pit.Never burn plastics or other poisonous materials,which will disturb your neighboring campground guests.It will also significantly pollute the air and promote the risk of fire spreads.  15   Use it only when all the other fire-making options fail.

  16   Before you leave your campfire or before you go to bed,make sure that it is completely out.Leaving fire unattended runs high risks of forest fires and the like.

A.Then,put the wood.

B.Camping can give you a lot of freedom.

C.It needs a certain degree of responsibility.

D.One traditional camp activity is making the campfire.

E.This will ensure that you will be able to control your campfire.

F.Once your campfire is set up,do not leave the flame unattended.

G.Do not use petrol every time you attempt to light your campfire.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

绝密 ★ 启用前

2018年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试仿真卷

英   语  (十)

本试卷共12页。全卷满分150分。考试用时120分钟。

★祝考试顺利★

注意事项:

1.答题前,先将自己的姓名、准考证号填写在试题卷和答题卡上,并将准考证号条形码粘贴在答题卡上的指定位置。用2B铅笔将答题卡上试卷类型A后的方框涂黑。

2.选择题的作答:每小题选出答案后,用2B铅笔把答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑,写在试题卷、草稿纸和答题卡上的非答题区域均无效。

3.非选择题的作答:用签字笔直接答在答题卡上对应的答题区域内。写在试题卷、草稿纸和答题卡上的非答题区域均无效。

4.考试结束后,请将本试题卷和答题卡一并上交。

第Ⅰ卷

第一部分 听力(共两节,满分 30 分)

第一节(共 5 小题;每小题 1.5 分,满分 7.5 分)

听下面 5 段对话,每段对话后有一个小题。从题中所给的 A,B,C 三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后,你都有 10 秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。

1. What will the man do on Sunday?

A. Play tennis.        B. Play football.        C. Go swimming.

2. What is the woman going to do?

A. Buy herself a pair of shoes.   B. Buy a gift for the man.    C. Attend a birthday party.

3. Why is the woman tired?

A. She saw a movie.   B. She took an exam.   C. She studied all night.

4. What are the speakers talking about?

A. Time.            B. Money.           C. A movie.

5. What is the man doing at the airport?

A. Flying to New York city.  B. Waiting for his sister.    C. Arriving at New York city.

 

第二节 (共15小题;每小题1.5分,满分22.5分)

听下面5段对话或独白。每段对话或独白后有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置,听每段对话或独白前,你将有时间阅读各个小题。每小题5秒钟;听完后,各小题给出5秒钟的作答时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。

听第6段材料,回答第6至7题。

6. What does the man worry about?

A. Getting H1 N1 flu.     B. Having a high temperature.     C. Catching a cold.

7. How often should the man take his medicine?

A. Four times a day.      B. Four times a week.           C. Six times a day.

听第7段材料,回答第8至9题。

8. How did the man go to the countryside?

A. On foot.              B. By car.              C. By bike.

9. Where did the man have his lunch?

A. By the lake.          B. On the mountain.        C. In the village.

听第8段材料,回答第10至12题。

10. What makes the woman feel glad?

A. The man will have more money.      

B. The man helps with her work.

C. The man has retired.

11. What does the woman do most probably?

A. An engineer.         B. A designer.       C. A housewife.

12. What kind of person is the woman?

A. Warmhearted.         B. Cold.          C. Hardworking.

听第9段材料,回答第13至16题。

13. Why are the speakers upset?

A. It may snow during their vacation.   

B. They may not be able to take their vacation.

C. They may fail to join the graduation ceremony.

14. What can we learn about the speaker’s vacation?

A. They are going skiing.   

B. They have made bookings for their plane.

C. Their flight has been canceled.

15. What made the speakers miss so many classes?

A. The bad weather.      B. The spring break.     C. The terrible flu.

16. What are the speakers going to do right now?

A. Speak to all of the other people.     

B. Talk to Professor Hampton.

C. Call the travel agency.

听第10段材料,回答第17至20题。

17. Which aspect of Mark Twain’s life does the speaker focus on?

A. His travels.     B. His short stories.   C. His family.

18. When did Mark Twain’s father pass away?

A. In 1835.       B. In 1839.          C. In 1847.

19. Why did Mark Twain go to the West?

A. He wanted to be a journalist.   

B. He was sent there by his army.

C. He wanted to get away from the war.

20. What connection does the speaker suggest between Mark Twain’s travels and his writings?

A. His stories were inspired by his travels.

B. His travels prevented him from writing.

C. He traveled around in order to write stories.

 

 

 

 

第二部分 阅读理解(共两节,满分40分)

第一节(共15小题:每小题2分,满分30分)

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C和D)中选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

A

(华大新高考联盟2018届高三教学质量检测)

Where to Dine on a Budget With Kids in London?

Where to dine on a budget with kids? These four London restaurants are as welcoming as they are wallet-friendly.

◆ Barbican Kitchen at the Barbican Centre

Europe’s largest multi-arts venue is home to cinemas, a theatre, a concert hall and galleries so there are plenty of ways for families to work up an appetite before refueling at the Barbican Kitchen. This ground floor restaurant serves a range of light bites, hot sandwiches and handmade pizzas and children under 12 eat free with every adult ordering a main meal.

◆ Sticky Fingers, Kensington

Sticky Fingers in Kensington is a rock n’roll restaurant that serves classic American dishes. The kid’s menu(for under 128)is just £ 7.95 for a meal, a drink and a dessert and if you visit on a Monday you can take advantage of the “Monday Madness” promotion for up to 50% off all main courses for adults. Don’t leave without exploring the Rolling Stones souvenirs including gold discs, guitars and photos of the band.

◆ Jamie’s Italina, Various Locations

Top British chef, Jamie Oliver knows a thing or two about catering for children. There are often “kids free” promotions running during school holidays but the regular kids menu is only £6.50 for a main dish, a salad and a drink. Activity packs are available for kids and the 2-course lunch deal for grown-ups is a bargain at £11.95.

◆ Vauxhall City Farm Café

Combine a day with the animals and lunch with the family at Vauxhall City Farm, a community space home to horse, pigs, goats and camels, Enjoy lunch at the Old Dairy Café which serves affordable sandwiches, soups, salads, cakes and dishes from a weekly specials menu. Half portions of everything are available for kids for around £2.

21. What are you expected to do before eating at Barbican Kitchen?

A. Eat light food.               B. Order a main meal.

C. Enjoy art and entertainments.   D. Explore the Rolling Stones.

22. Which restaurant can attract music fans?

A. Jamie’s Italian.    B. Sticky Fingers .  

C. Barbican Kitchen.    D. Vauxhall City Farm .Café.

23. How are both Jamie’s Italian and Vauxhall City Farm .Café wallet-friendly?

A. They both offer kids free food.            B. They both do promotions regularly.

C. They both serve adults at a bargain price.   D. They both make a small change for kids’ meal.

 

 

 

 

 

(河北衡水中学2018届高三八模)

Journey to Mecca: In the Footsteps of Ibn Battuta

Ibn Battuta is considered one of the world’s greatest travellers. During the 14th century, he travelled about 75, 000 miles in search of knowledge and for the love of travel. To share the learning and research so highly valued by Islamic (伊斯兰教的) culture, the ruler of Morocco, Abu Inan Faris, wanted Ibn Battuta’s worldwide travels recorded and published when he returned home to Morocco after almost 30 years. Ibn Juzayy, a Moroccan Court Secretary, was appointed to write down Ibn Battuta’s experiences. His travel journal, The Rihla, documents this extraordinary achievement. It gives us a first-hand account of life in the 14th-century Muslim world. The original book, handwritten in Arabic, can be viewed today at the National Library in Paris.

The early 14th century was a favorable age for a Muslim traveller. It was nearing the end of the Golden Age of Islam, one of the great explosions of scientific and cultural achievements in world history. Caravans    and sea lanes created transportation and communication networks that spread across continents, including Europe, Africa and Asia. Towns and cities were regularly visited by merchants, traders, doctors, artists, craftsmen, scholars and pilgrims (朝圣者) carrying goods and ideas. All of these promoted the exchange of goods and ideas on a scale not seen previously in world history. As an educated man with professional legal skills, Ibn Battuta enjoyed kindness, companionship and offers of employment throughout the Islamic world.

Journey to Mecca describes the 5, 000-mile journey Ibn Battuta made in 1325 and 1326 from his hometown Tangier, Morocco, to reach Mecca, in what is now the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, to make the pilgrimage. During this dangerous and awesome 18-month pilgrimage, he met many hindrances as he was attacked by robbers, troubled by thirst, and forced to go back to his route due to war along the Red Sea. Joining the legendary Damascus Caravan with thousands of pilgrims leaving for Mecca, he completed the final section of what would be his first of six journeys to Mecca.

The goal of the film, Journey to Mecca, was to tell the remarkable story of Ibn Battuta and to promote a better understanding of Islam in the West, said the producers.

24. We can conclude that Abu Inan Faris probably thought Ibn Battuta’s travel experiences ________.

A. precious     B. questionable      C. mysterious     D. ridiculous

 

25. What can we learn about Ibn Battuta from the text?

A. He wrote the travel journal, The Rihla, by himself.

B. He travelled all the way with the legendary Damascus Caravan during his first journey.

C. He was a very successful businessman.

D. He had to overcome varieties of difficulties while traveling.

 

26. The underlined word “hindrances” in Paragraph 3 can best be replaced by “________”.

A. tricks     B. friends        C. barriers     D. opportunities

 

27. In which section of a newspaper can we possibly find this passage?

A. History.     B. Travel.      C. Economy.    D. Entertainment.

 

 

C

(甘肃省高台一中2018届高三第五次模拟)

Self-driving vehicles will rely on cameras, sensors and artificial intelligence (AI) to recognize and respond to road and traffic conditions, but sensing is the most effective for objects and movement in the neighborhood of the vehicle. Not everything important in a car’s environment will be caught by the vehicle’s camera. Another vehicle approaching at high speed on a collision (碰撞)track might not be visible until it’s too late. This is why vehicle-to-vehicle communication is undergoing rapid development. Our research shows that cars will need to be able to chat and cooperate on the road, although the technical challenges are considerable.

Applications for vehicle-to-vehicle communication range from vehicles driving together in a row, to safety messages about nearby emergency vehicles. Vehicles could alert each other to avoid collisions or share notices about passers-by and bicycles.

From as far as several hundred meters away, vehicles could exchange messages with one another or receive information from roadside units(RSUs)about nearby incidents or dangerous road conditions through 4G network A high level of A1 seems required for such vehicles, not only to self-drive from A to B, but also to react intelligently to messages received. Vehicles will need to plan, reason, strategize and adapt in the light of information received in real time and to carry out cooperative behaviors. For example, a group of autonomous vehicles might avoid a route together because of potential risks, or a vehicle could decide to drop someone off earlier due to messages received, a foreseen crowding ahead.

Further applications of vehicle-to-vehicle communication are still being researched, including how to perform cooperative behavior.

28. What is the first paragraph mainly about?

A. The reasons for the accidents by self-driving vehicles.

B. The research about applications for self-driving vehicles.

C. The importance of artificial intelligence of self-driving vehicles.

D. The reasons for developing communication between self-driving vehicles.

 

29. What does the underlined word “alert” mean in Paragraph 2?

A. Alarm.     B. Condemn.      C. Ignore.     D. Govern.

 

30. What can we learn about roadside units (RSUs)?

A. They classify the vehicles on the road.

B. They can improve bad road conditions.

C. They take over the passing vehicles.

D. They serve as efficient information stations.

 

31. What is the best title for the text?

A. When do vehicles communicate?

B. The reasons why a high level of AI is important

C. Vehicle-to-vehicle communication is coming

D. What do applications for vehicle-to-vehicle communication need?

 

 

D

(黑龙江省双鸭山一中2018届高三上期末)

Somewhere between 40,000 and 110,000 tons of plastic waste produced by Americans ends up in the ocean, according to a study published in the journal Science.

It’s difficult to point out where all that waste comes from, and researchers think that much or most of it probably comes from the nation’s seriously-populated coasts. But there’s also evidence that the nation’s inland waterways serve as a passage for plastic to travel thousands of miles into the oceans.

While researchers have documented plastic and human trash floating in the world’s oceans, there has been relatively little attention paid to plastics in rivers, streams and lakes. “To my knowledge, no one has studied particular routes, with the exception of places like L.A, and Baltimore Harbor where there are measures in place to prevent trash in rivers from entering the ocean.” said Kara Lavender Law, an oceanographer.

The few studies that exist, however, suggest that it may be a huge problem. A 2011 study of two southern California urban rivers—including Santa Ana River—found that every square meter of water contained from 125 to 819 pieces larger than 4.75 millimeters. Another survey of the Meuse River, which flows 575 miles through France. Belgium and the Netherlands to the North Sae, found that it contained 70,000 pieces of plastics per square meter of water, about 500 of which were roughly an inch or bigger in size.

If there’s anything positive in this, it’s you that can do something, at least on a personal level, to reduce the amount of plastic that goes into the oceans. “Put trash where it goes.” said Jenna Jambeck, an associate professor of environmental engineering at the University of Georgia. “Use reusable items—bags, cups and bottles—to reduce waste.”

Finally, Jambeck urges people to pick up litter along waterways, and record it with a phone app called the Marine Debris Tracker. The data you provide can help scientists to get a better handle on the trash problem.

32. According to the text, the least polluted place might be _____.

A. Meuse River    B. Baltimore Harbor    C. The North Sea    D. Santa Ana River

 

33. How does the author prove plastic waste in rivers is a huge problem?

A. By referring to experts’ views.     B. By following time order.

C. By making comparisons.     D. By listing statistics.

 

34. What does Jenna Jambeck advise us to do?

A. Make use of plastic items.     B. Stay positive about the oceans’ future.

C. Start from small things to deal with waste.     D. Reduce the size of waste we throw away.

35. What can we do by using the Marine Debris Tracker?

 

A. Provide some data for scientists to use.

B. Recycle some wasted items.

C. Call on more people to pick up litter.

D. Make picking up litter a daily routine.

 

第一节 完形填空(共 20 小题;每小题 1.5 分,满分 30 分)

阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的四个选项(A、B、C 和 D)中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

(2018版全国100所名校高三示范卷六)

“Do not decide something too fast; otherwise you will regret it later.” This is what my __41___ told me when I was young. In May 2, I went to window shop to buy a beautiful ___42___ in Siam Square with my friend for my first party. Having walked for 5 hours, we were so ___43___ that our shirts stuck to our body. We were like robots only __44___ to find beautiful dresses. Then we found one ___45___ with many dresses hanging on the wall. We ran in and found a pink dress which looked __46___ than any other we saw. I immediately bought the dress with a smiling face, though not ___47___ to buy it on that very day.

When I went back home, I started to feel like something was ___48___. Did my dress look cheap or too ordinary or match me? The ___49___ was going around my brain for a whole day. _50___ that party was the first one in my life. I really wanted to look beautiful.

Two weeks later, I went to Siam Square again with my same ___51___ to buy accessories for the party. We walked to the same place again and ___52___ a shop which we did not see on the dress choosing day. We went in and found the shop full of brilliant dresses. After trying on a dress ___53___ by my friend, I found it simply ___54___. The color was perfectly beautiful pink; the shape was exactly what I ___55___, and the price was lower than the one I had bought. Thinking of the dress bought last time, my excitement for the party __56___.

On June 2, I went to party with no confidence on myself. Seeing many people with wonderful dresses, I could not stop ___57___ the pink dress. From this ___58___, I learned what my father said was correct. I should have been more ___59___. Each time I look at my dress in wardrobe, I remember the ___60___ decision that I made by being too hurried.

41. A. father         B. teacher     C. grandpa     D. relative

42. A. hat         B. dress     C. skirt     D. coat

43. A. exhausted     B. shocked     C. relieved     D. accustomed

44. A. helping         B. failing      C. moving     D. agreeing

45. A. case     B. shop     C. party     D. exhibition

46. A. cheaper         B. larger     C. newer     D. better

47. A. affording     B. promising     C. planning     D. remembering

48. A. special         B. wrong         C vital          D. fashionable

49. A. test     B. image     C. direction    D. question

50. A. If         B. When     C. Because     D. While

51. A. purpose        B. friend     C. money     D. shirt

52. A. forgot         B. missed     C. found     D. researched

53. A. made     B. recommended   C. donated     D. distributed

54. A. unpopular     B. single      C. ordinary     D. awesome

55. A. wanted         B. bought      C. deserved     D. designed

56. A. doubled         B. expected     C. increased     D. disappeared

57. A. trying on     B. thinking about  C. picking out     D. judging from

58. A. task     B. journey     C. experience     D. performance

59. A. energetic     B. generous      C active          D. careful

60. A. stupid         B. final         C. eager         D. common

 

第二节 (共 5 小题,每小题 2 分,满分 10 分)

根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项,选项中有两项为多余选项。

(辽宁省鞍山市第一中学2018届高三二模)

Nowadays, people tend to take a selfie(自拍)wherever they are. However, not all of them can take a perfect selfie.  ___36___So I am going to give you some tips on how to get a perfect one.

Use Several Devices. Before you can even think about uploading a selfie on your social networking site, you need to decide which device to use in the first place. Although there are many devices you can use to take a selfie, the best one is a smart phone with a front and back camera. However, it doesn’t mean that your other devices can’t come in handy. ___37___In the end, all that matters is how well you practice and how to get the right shots.

Catch Good Lighting and Background. To capture a classic selfie, you have to pay close attention to the lighting and background. If you’re taking a selfie indoors, you are supposed to face a window or door where natural light is shining right on your face. This really brightens up the picture.__38___.

Aim for Unconventional Shots. For a refreshing twist, try taking a selfie with your pet.__39___One great thing about selfie is that you don’t need to wait for the right time or place. You can instantly reach out for your camera, strike a pose, and get a rocking selfie.

___40___Relax, enjoy and click ---these are the three basic rules you need to follow. A selfie is not an activity where you need to follow some guidelines or set rules.

A. Try to avoid the serious face.

B. Pretend to be very happy all the time.

C. Taking a selfie needs practice and skills.

D. You remember to show your best smiles there.

E. For an outdoor selfie, face the sun to make it work.

F. You just have to understand how each of them works.

G. It’s interesting to see what king of expression it will give.

 

 

 

第 II 卷

第三部分 英语知识运用

第二节(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分)

阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。

(山东省枣庄市三中2018届高三一调)

I’ve not been around here much recently as I __61___ (be) busy with courses for these last few months. One of the courses we host is a Perma-culture Design Course, and I want to tell you about the “Kindness Angel”___62___ has been introduced into this year’s events.

On the wall of the classroom are taped ___63___ (envelope), and each has on it the name of someone on site. Those names ___64___ (write) on slips of paper and one is slipped into each envelope __65___ random. When you go to “your” envelope, this slip of paper is the name of the person that you are going to act as “Kindness Angel” for the whole period of time of the event. Of course, people are away from home and, have limited resources ___66___ (create) large or flashy kindnesses, so they’re being inventive. It is ___67___ (enjoy) to see people sneaking away other people’s dishes to wash,___68___ (leave) kind notes, and paying forward treats from the tuck shop (小卖部). And as people have kindness on their minds, they’re not just providing little kindnesses for their own person,___69___ for everyone. It’s lovely to see.

Following the last course I gave my younger son “his” envelope as it was stuffed full of little notes. Someone had drawn him a little Lego character; someone else had given him a beautiful snail’s shell that they had found. He has kept ___70___ all.

 

第四部分 写作 (共两节 满分 35)

第一节 短文改错(10 分)

假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。

文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。

     增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号( ),并在其下面写出该加的词。

     删除:把多余的词用斜线( )划掉。

修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。

注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词;

2.只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。

(辽宁省沈阳市东北育才学校2018届高三一模)

Last week I went to visit my former neighbor, Mr. Yang. He and I used to living next to each other for many years. About half a year ago, news came which the old building, along with many other similar ones, were going to be pulled down to make a room for a main street. So they had to move apart. Mr. Yang now lives in the suburbs near a beautifully park. His apartment is much big than before. The only problem is that it took quite a long time to get to the downtown area. Therefore, Mr. Yang doesn’t seem to worry about the long distance. He says that a new subway line will be built in a few years and he is sure life will be better in the future.

 

 

第二节  书面表达(满分25分)

(全国名校大联考2018届高三新课标仿真四) 现在越来越多的人成为低头族(People who can’t help checking their phones all day are known as phubbers. Phubbing trends to involve not only the young people, but also the elderly.),如何引导低头族抬头?你们班举行了以“拒为低头族”为主题的班会。假设你是学生李华,请为班会写一篇100词左右的发言稿。

要点如下:

1. 你周围有低头族吗?他们成为“低头族”的原因。

2. 成为“低头族”给学习和生活带来的影响。

3. 就如何“拒为低头族”提一些建议。

      

 

 

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