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淮南家教公司点评高中英语狂K语法:定语从句

淮南家教公司点评高中英语狂K语法:定语从句

定语从句在句中作定语,修饰名词或代词,被修饰的名词词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。

关系代词有:who,whom, whose, that, which等。

关系副词有:when, where, why等。

 

1 关系代词引导的定语从句

关系代词所代替的先行词是表示人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。

1)who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是表示人的名词或代词,在从句中作主语或宾语。

例如:

Is he the man who/that wants to see you?

他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)

He is the man whom/that I saw yesterday.

他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)

2)whose 用来指人或物(只用作定语,若指物,它还可以同of which互换)

例如:

They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down.

那人的车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。

Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green.

请递给我那本绿皮的书。

3)which, that所代替的先行词是表示事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等。

例如:

A prosperity which/that had never been seen before appears in the countryside.

农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which/that在句中作宾语)

The package (which/that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped.你拿的包快散了。(which/that在句中作宾语) 

 

2 关系副词引导的定语从句

关系副词可代替的先行词是表示时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。

1)关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用。

例如:

There are occasions when (on which) one must yield.

任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。

Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born.

北京是我的出生地。

Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer?

这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?

2)that代替关系副词,可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后代替when, where, why和“介+which”引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略。

例如:

His father died the year (that/when/in which) he was born.

他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。

He is unlikely to find the place (that/where/in which) he lived forty years ago.他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。

 

3 判断关系代词与关系副词

方法一:用关系代词还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。

例如:

This is the mountain village where I stayed last year.

这是我去年呆过的山村。

I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.

我永远不会忘记与你共事的日子。

判断改错:

(错)This is the mountain village where I visited last year.

(对)This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year.

(错)I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.

(对)I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside.

习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词where, when联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。

方法二:准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词或关系副词。

例1. Is this museum ____ you visited a few days ago?

A. where  B. that  C. on which  D. the one

例2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held.

A. where  B. that  C. on which  D. the one

答案:例1:D;   例2:A

例1变为肯定句: 

This museum is ____ you visited a few days ago.

例2变为肯定句: 

This is the museum ____ the exhibition was held.

在例1中,从句中所缺部分为宾语,而主句中又缺表语,所以只有the one可以作主句的表语,而关系代词作从句的宾语可以省略,所以选D。

而例2中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用关系副词where,又可用介词in + which引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on用的不对,所以选A。

关系词的选择依据在从句中所作的成分,先行词在从句中作主语、定语、宾语时,选择关系代词(who, whom, that, which, whose);先行词在从句中作状语时,应选择关系副词(where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语)。

 

4 限制性和非限制性定语从句

1)定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开。

例如:

This is the house which we bought last month.

这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)

The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.

这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)

2)当先行词是专有名词或有物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的。

例如:

Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year.

查理•史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。

My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden.

我去年买的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。

This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching.

这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

3)非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词,对其进行修饰,这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数。

例如:

He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me.

他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。

Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation.

液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。

说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。

 

5 “介词+关系词”结构

(1) 介词后面的关系词不能省略;

(2) that前不能有介词;

(3) 关系副词when,where,why的含义相当于“介词+which”结构,因此,常常可以和“介词|+which”结构交替使用。

例如:

This is the house where (in which) I lived two years ago.

这是我两年前住过的房子。

Do you remember the day when (on which) you joined our club?

还记得你加入我们俱乐部的那一天吗?

 

6 as和which引导的非限定性定语从句

由as和which引导的非限定性定语从句,as和which可代整个主句。as一般放在句首,which在句中。

例如:

As we know, smoking is harmful to one’s health.

如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。

The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us.

太阳使地球暖起来,这对我们很重要。

注意:as引导的定语从句可置于句首,而which不可;

 

7 关系代词that的用法

(1) 不用that的情况:

●引导非限定性定语从句时。例如:

The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here.(错)

●介词后不能用that。例如:

 We depend on the land from which we get our food. 我们依赖土地获得食物。

We depend on the land that/which we get our food from.

(2) 只能用that作为定语从句的关系代词的情况:

●在不定代词,如anything,nothing,the one,all,much,few,any,little等作先行词时,只用that,不用which。例如:

All that is needed is a supply of oil. 所需的只是供油问题。

●先行词有the only,the very修饰时,只用that。例如:

He is the only person that attended the meeting. 他是唯一参加这个会议的人。

●先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰时,只用that。例如:

This is the most exciting film I have ever seen. 这是我看过的最令人兴奋的电影。

●先行词既有人,又有物时。例如:

They talked of things and persons that they remembered. 他们谈论着他们记得的人和事。

以上是安徽淮南家教公司点评高中英语狂K语法:定语从句

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