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淮南一对一辅导安徽中考英语语法及历年真题

安徽中考英语语法及历年真题

 语法知识

一、名词(占题比例2%)

1.1名词的概念:表示人,事物,地点或抽象概念名称的词叫做名词。

1.2名词的分类:

 

         专有名词 星期日(Sunday)     美国 (USA)        吉姆(Jim)

 

普通名词 可数名词 个体名词   book(书)   pen(笔)

集体名词   class (班级)  family(家庭)

不可数名词 物质名词   water(水)   milk(牛奶)

抽象名词     love (爱)    help(帮助)

 

1.3名词的数:

可数名词的复数形式构成有两种:一种是规则变化,另一种是不规则变化。

 

1.3.1规则变化:

情况 变化规则 例词

一般情况 在词尾加-s book--books   bag--bags

以s; x; sh; ch结尾 在词尾加-es watch--watches  bus--buses

以辅音字母加y结尾 把y变为i再加-es city--cities    baby--babies

以f/fe结尾 把f/fe变为v再加-es knife--knives

以辅音字母加o结尾 有生命意义的加-es tomato--tomatoes

无生命意义的加-s piano--pianos

 

1.3.2不规则变化:

1)外部变化:child---children 

2)内部变化:foot---feet tooth---teeth  mouse---mice   man---men  woman---women  

注意:与 man 和 woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men 和-women。 

如: an Englishman,two Englishmen. 但German不是合成词,故复数形式为Germans;  Bowman是姓,其复数是the Bowmans。 

3)单复数同形 如: 

  deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese 

  li,jin,yuan,two li,three mu,four jin  

  但除人民币元、角、分外,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。

如: a dollar, two dollars;  a meter, two meters 

 

4)集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。 

   如: people police cattle 等本身就是复数,不能说 a people,a police,a cattle,但可以说 

a person,a policeman,a head of cattle, the English,the British,the French,

如the Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用。    : The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。 

 

5)以s结尾,仍为单数的名词,如: 

   a. math,politics,physics等学科名词,为不可数名词,是单数。 

   b. news 是不可数名词。 

   c. the United States,the United Nations 应视为单数。 

   The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是1945年组建起来的。 

   d. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。 

   "The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book. 

   <<一千零一夜>>是一本非常有趣的故事书。 

 

6)表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes 

若表达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套)

a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers 

   

7) 另外还有一些名词,单复数表不同概念,如:goods货物,waters水域,fishes(各种)鱼  

历年真题:

1、 -- I have great __ in learning math and I'm so worried. Could you help me?

  -- Sure. I'd be glad to.(安徽卷单选第36题,2011年)

A.trouble B. interest  C. joy D. Fun

2. -- Could you tell me something about the boy who helped you just now?

     -- Sorry, I know nothing about him. We are______.(安徽卷单选第39题,2010年)

     A. friends              B. neighbors           C. classmates          D. strangers

 

1.4名词在句中的作用

1)主语

His father is writing a letter.

2)表语

She is our teacher. 

3)宾语 

① 直接宾语

We love our great motherland.

You must listen to the teacher.

② 间接宾语

She gave her mother a birthday cake.

Who sent Mr. Smith this letter?

③ 介词宾语

The letter is for his mother. 

She is fond of music.

 

 

二、代词(占题比例11%)

2.1概念:代替名词或名词短语以及相当于名词或名词短语的词。

 

2.2代词的分类:

分类                           例词

人称代词 I, we, you ,he, she,it,them

物主代词 my, your, his, her, our, their, mine, hers, theirs, ours

反身代词 myself, yourself, himself, herself,itself,ourselves, themselves

指示代词 this, that, these, those

不定代词 all, some, any, much,many,few, little

相互代词 each other, one another

疑问代词 who, whom,whose,which,what

连接代词 who, whom, whose, which, what

关系代词 who,whom,whose,that, which, as

 

历年真题:

1、 -- I'm hungry, less there any bread in the fridge?

-- ______but we have cakes. Would you like to have one? 

  A. Some B. Much  C. None D. Nothing

2. Hey, Nick.___ comes the last bus! Hurry up, or we'll have to walk home.

A. This B. There C. That D. It

3. -- I need something for cutting the paper.

  -- Oh, you want a knife? OK, I'll get ______ for you.

     A. it         B. that                C. this                D. One

4. The teacher asked the boy many questions, but he only answered ______ of them.(安徽卷单选第45题,2010年)

     A. some           B. lots            C. each               D. few

5.--Who is singing in the next room?

  --______must be Marie.

     A. It          B. She            C. This               D. There

6、A lot of story books are on sale, but___good ones.

     A. any B. some C. few D. many

7.--Whose pen is this?

 --oh, it’s___.I was looking for it everywhere.

A.you   B. yours  C. me    D. mine

8.--How is Helen in the new school?

 --She is doing very well. There is___to worry about.

 A. something          B. anything     C. nothing     D. everything

9. We have red and yellowT-shirts.Which color does you like?

I am afraid___.I Think blue will be OK.(安徽卷单选第44题,2012年)

 A. both         B. either          C. neither            D. None

10. I am leaving for the exam. Bye-- bye, Mum.

 Well, make sure you've got___ ready.

A.something     B. anything      C. everything         D. nothing

11.--Are Jim and Bob playing outside?

  ---_____.They are doing their homework in the study.

A. Either      B.Both         C.Neither           D.None

 

三、冠词(占题比例1%)

I. 不定冠词的用法:

1 指一类人或事,相当于a kind of A plane is a machine that can fly.

2 第一次提及某人某物,非特指 A boy is waiting for you.

3 表示“每一”相当于every,one We study eight hours a day.

4 表示“相同”相当于the same We are nearly of an age.

5 用于人名前,表示不认识此人或与某名人有类似性质的人或事 A Mr. Smith came to visit you when you were out

That boy is rather a Lei Feng.

6 用于固定词组中 A couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk, many a time

7 用于quite, rather, many, half, what, such之后 This room is rather a big one.

8 用于so(as, too, how)+形容词之后 She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet.

II. 定冠词的用法:

1 表示某一类人或物 The horse is a useful animal.

2 用于世上独一无二的事物名词前 the universe, the moon, the Pacific Ocean

3 表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过的人或事 Would you mind opening the door? 

4 用于乐器前面 play the violin, play the guitar

5 用于形容词和分词前表示一类人 the reach, the living, the wounded

6 表示“一家人”或“夫妇” the Greens, the Wangs

7 用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高级前 He is the taller of the two children.

8 用于国家党派等以及江河湖海,山川群岛的名词前 the United States, the Communist Party of China, the French

9 用于表示发明物的单数名词前 The compass was invented in China.

10 在逢十的复数数词之前,指世纪的某个年代 in the 1990’s

11 用于表示单位的名词前 I hired the car by the hour.

12 用于方位名词,身体部位名词,及表示时间的词组前 He patted me on the shoulder.

III. 零冠词的用法:

1 专有名词,物质名词,抽象名词,人名地名等名词前 Beijing University, Jack, China, love, air

2 名词前有this, my, whose, some, no, each, every等限制 I want this book, not that one. /  Whose purse is this?

3 季节,月份,星期,节假日,一日三餐前 March, Sunday, National Day, spring

4 表示职位,身份,头衔的名词前 Lincoln was made President of America.

5 学科,语言,球类,棋类名词前 He likes playing football/chess.

6 与by连用表示交通工具的名词前 by train, by air, by land

7 以and连接的两个相对的名词并用时 husband and wife, knife and fork, day and night

8 表示泛指的复数名词前 Horses are useful animals.

 

历年真题:

It's not __ good idea to drive for four hours without _ break.

  A. a; a B. a: the C. the; a D. the; the

 

四、数词(占题比例3%)

数词分为基数词和序数词。

(1)基数词

1  one 11  eleven 21  twenty-one 107  one hundred and seven

2  two 12  twelve 22  twenty-two

3  three 13  thirteen 30  thirty 114  one hundred (and) fourteen

4  four 14  fourteen 40  forty

5  five 15  fifteen 50  fifty 130  one hundred (and) thirty

6  six 16  sixteen 60  sixty

7  seven 17  seventeen 70  seventy 935  nine hundred (and) ninety-five

8 eight 18  eighteen 80  eighty

9 nine 19  nineteen 90  ninety 999 

nine hundred (and) ninety-nine

10 ten 20  twenty 100 one hundred

基数词表示事物的数量

 

(2)序数词

序数词表示事物的顺序,往往与定冠词the连用,当其前面有this, that, my 等限定词修饰时则不用the.

Turn right at the second street. 在第二个街口向右拐。

This is our first lesson. 这是我们的第一课。

序数词的构成规则:

情况 构成 例词

一般情况 基数词词尾加-th ten-tenth, six-sixth

以-ty结尾的基数词 变y为i,再加-eth thirty-thirtieth, seventy-seventieth

特殊序数词 - one-first

two-second

three-third

多位数词 将个位上的基数词变为序数词 forty-three — forty-third

one hundred and sixty-eight—one hundred and sixty-eighth

*序数词可以用缩写形式。 ⊙first— 1st , twenty-first— 21st .

 

 

◆分数=基数词/序数词(分母大于等于2时加S)

例如:2/3   two thirds         

◆基数词+hundred或thousand时,hundred或thousand后不加S,但表示成百上千或成千上万时用Hundreds of或thousands of

 

历年真题:

1. The number of the students in our grade ________about six _______,

________of them are girls.

  A. are, hundreds, two- thirds B. is, hundred, two- third

  C. is, hundred, two thirds. D. are, hundreds, two third

 2. ___________ travellers come to visit our city every year.

  A. Hundred of B. Hundreds of C. Five hundreds D. Hundred

3. He spent ________ yuan on the new computer.

  A. five thousand, three hundred and forty B. five thousand, three hundred and forties

  C. five thousands, three hundred and forty. D. five thousands, hundreds and forty

 

五、介词(占题比例8%)

介词:一般用于名词或代词前,表示该词与句子其他成份的关系。

介词宾语:介词后面的代词或名词。

介词短语:介词和介词宾语一起构成介词短语。

⊙表示场所:at, in, on, under, near, next to, between, in front of, behind

⊙表示方向:along, across, across, from, to

⊙表示时间和日期:at, on, in, during

介词 介词短语

of a picture of... ,some places of...

for a ticket of speeding, count them for me, a good plan for the holiday

to take these flower to the party, point to

by by bus, by the fireplace, by hand

at at half past seven, at the end of..., at the first crossing, at the age of, be good at, at home

on on May 22nd, on school days, on the street, on the half, go on a trip

in in the new year, in 2003, in June, in Spring, in the park, in our area, in Grade 9

from be far form, be across form, come form, be different from, come from, from A to Z

In front of He's in front of the house.

between ...and... between Class One and Class Two

about learn about the past, know about school life

with with my friends, play with, with one’s help

after after school

next to next to my bedroom

under under ¥300 per month, under the tree

near near my desk

behind behind the door

along go along this road

across go across the bridge 

 

历年真题:

1.——what do you often do_______ classes to relax yourself?

——Listen to music.(08)

A over    B among    C between       D through

2——Why are you standing there, Maggie?

——I  can`t see the blackboard clearly. Two tall boys are sitting______me.(09)

A behind   B in front of  C beside   D next to 

3. My father was preparing for his speech __ my mother was doing some washing last night.(11)

A. if B. while C. unless D. until

4. I hear our teacher will be back three weeks' time.(11)

A.at  B. in  C. for D. After

5. What a" nice day! We should go sightseeing __ watching TV in the hotel.(11)

A. because of B. instead of C. together with D. out of

6. -- What time do you expect me back, Mum?(10)

   -- Say, ______half an hour.

    A. at          B. before             C. in                D. for

7. welcome to our hotel! I hope you will have a good time________ your stay here(12)

A after   B during  C with  D since

8.the man tried several times to start the car, and he succeeded_____.(12)

 A in the past   B in the end     C at first  D at once

  

六、连词(占题比例6%)

连词是一种虚词, 它不能独立担任句子成分而只起连接词与词,短语与短语以及句与句的作用。连词主要可分为4类:并列连词、选择连词、转折连词和因果连词。

(1)并列连词

1)and 与or

2)both ... and 两者都 

3)not only…but (also),as well as不但…而且 

4)neither…nor意为"既不……也不……"谓语动词采用“就近原则”,与nor后的词保持

一致

(2)选择连词

1) or意思为"或"

2) either…or意思为"或者……或者……"。注意谓语动词采用“就近原则”

(3)转折连词

1) but表示转折,while表示对比

2) not…but…意思为"不是……而是……" 

not 和but 后面的用词要遵循一致原则

(4)因果连词

1) for 

for是并列连词,不能置于含两个并列分句的句子的句首,只能将其放在两个分句中间

2)So

because 和 so ——任选其一

though / although和 but  ——任选其一。

 

历年真题:

1.——Hurry up! The bus is coming.

——Wait a minute. Don`t cross the street ____the traffic lights are green.(09)

A .after    B. until      C. while     D.since

2——Did you call Sara back?

   ——I didn't need to, ______ we`ll have a meeting together tonight.(09)

A though  B unless  C  because    D if

3. Linda tried to become an excellent teacher, ______at last she succeeded.(09)

A. so   B or   C should   D and

4. You'd better take the map with you_____ you won't get lost.(11)

A. as long as B. as soon as C. now that D. so that

5. Bob promises to join in the football match ______ he has to help his parents on the farm.(10)

     A. if         B. as                C. unless              D. when

6.—— what`s your plan for the summer holidays?

——I will go to Beijing________ the school term ends.(12)

  A in order that  B so that  C as soon as  D even though

 

七、形容词和副词(占题比例13%)

形容词和副词的用法多在比较级和最高级上

 

(一)形容词的比较等级

(1)比较等级的含义

形容词有三个比较等级,分别是原级、比较级、最高级。比较级表示“较……”或“更……一些”,最高级表示“最……”。

①表示两者的比较时用比较级。

⊙This room is bigger than that one.  这个房间比那个大。

②表示三者或三者以上中“最……”时,用最高级。

⊙The rabbit is the smallest of them.  兔子是她它们中最小的。

 

(2)基本用法

①比较级:常用于“比较级+than”结构。

⊙Beijing is bigger than Tianjin.  北京比天津大。

②最高级:常用“the +最高级+比较范围”结构,比较范围常用of, in, among 引导的短语表达。

⊙The Great Wall of China is one of the greatest wonders in the words.

中国长城是世界上最伟大的奇观之一。

③特殊情况下:形容词最高级后的名词可省去。

⊙He is the youngest in the class. 他是班上年龄最小的学生。

 

(3)注意事项

①比较级与最高级的结构可以转换,意思不变。

⊙The Yangtze River is longer than any other river in China. 在中国,长江比任何河流都长。

=The Yangtze River is the longest river in China. 长江是中国最长的河流。

②当某一事物与其他事物作比较的时,被比较事物不能包括本身。

⊙He is taller than any other student in his class.  他比班上其他学生都高。

③如果比较对象相同,可用that/those代替第二个比较对象。

⊙The weather in Shanghai is better than that in Wuhan. 上海的天气比武汉好。

④两个比较级用and连在一起可表达全面增加或减少,意为“越来越……”

⊙The weather is getting warmer and warmer. 天气越来越暖和。

She is becoming more and more beautiful. 她越来越漂亮。

⑤“the + 比较级,the + 比较级”表示“越……,越……”。

⊙The more, the better. 越多越好。

⑥表示两者中“较……”时,用“the + 形容词比较级 + of短语”来表达。

⊙He is the taller of the two. 他是两人中较高者。

⑦形容词的比较级可用much, a little, a lot, even等修饰,使原来的比较级在语意上更加明确。

Chickens are much smaller than cows. 鸡要比奶牛小得多。

 

(二)副词的比较等级

副词用于修饰动词、形容词、其他副词以及全句。同形容词一样,副词有三个等级,也是原级、比较级和最高级。其比较等级变化与形容词上大致相同,用法也基本相同。

(1)用法

①原级

表示比较双方程度相同时,常用“as +形容词/副词原级+as”结构,意为“……和……一样”。

⊙Sue is as tall as Sally. 苏和萨利一样高。

I want to live as happily as before 我想和以前一样快乐地生活。

表示比较双方程度不同时,常用“not as/so +形容词/副词原级+ as”结构,意为“…不如……”。

⊙This book is not as/so interesting as that one. 这本书不如那本书有趣。

Kangkang doesn’t draw as/so carefully as Michael. 康康画画不如迈克尔好。

You don’t study as/so hard as your sister. 你学习不如你姐姐努力。

②比较级

两者之间比较时,常用“形容词/副词比较级+than”结构,意为“比……更……”。

⊙You’re luckier than many people. 你比许多人都幸运。

Michael cuts more finely than she. 迈克尔比她切得更细。

Jane cooked more carefully than Maria. 简做饭比玛丽亚更认真。

否定比较级可用“less +原级形容词/副词+ than”结构,表示“……不如……”

This passage is less difficult than that one. 这篇文章没有那篇难。

He speaks less loudly than I. 他说话声音没有我大。

③最高级

三者或三者以上比较时,常用“the +形容词/副词最高级 +in/of … (比较范围)”结构,意为“某人(或某物)在某范围内最……”。副词最高级钱可省去the。

⊙This picture is the most beautiful of the three. 这幅画是三幅中最美丽的。

Lin Tao jumps (the) highest in our class. 林涛在我们班里跳的最高。

Li Feng sings (the) best of all. 李峰是所有人中唱得最好的。

 

(2)注意事项

①在同级比较结构中,第一个as前可加half, twice, three times等词修饰,表示倍速关系。

⊙The ruler is half as long as that one. 这把尺子的长度是那把的一半。

②形容词或副词的比较级前可用much, a lot, a little, a bit, even, still, far等词来修饰,表示不同程度。

⊙Her apple is much bigger than mine. 她的苹果比我的大得多。

③借助other, else或否定词,比较级形式可用来表示最高级概念。

⊙He is taller than any other boy (或anybody else)in our class.

在我们班上他比别的任何一个男孩(别的任何人)都高。

Nobody runs faster than him. 没人比他跑得快。

④“the +比较级…,the +比较级…”表示“越……,越……”

⊙The more careful you are, the fewer mistakes you’ll make. 你越仔细,所犯错误就越少。

⑤“比较级+and+比较级”表示“越来越……”

It becomes colder and colder when winter comes. 冬天来了,天气越来越冷。

It is raining more and more heavily. 雨越下越大。

 

历年真题:

1.We lost the match because they had _______ players. They had eleven and we had only nine !(2012.)

  A. stronger      B. younger       C. fewer       D.more

2.——You are relaxing yourself here?

  ——Yes. It feels ______ to walk slowly along the river.

  A. fantastic      B.boring      C.strange      D.terrible 

3.Mike hurt his back seriously and can ______ get out of bed without help.

  A. quickly      B. easily      C.nearly      D. Hardly

4.We felt ________ when Liu Xiang won the first prize again in the race.

  A. brave B. proud C. successful D. Worried 

5.--Jack is good at drawing. I think no one draws _______.

A. better B. best C. worse D. Worst

6. -- Did you find the small village yesterday?

   -- Yes, without any difficulty, for it has ______ changed over years.

  A. hardly       B. greatly            C. clearly            D. nearly

7.-- It seems that Alice never wants to do anything except draw pictures.

   -- Right. That's what she likes to do ______.

   A. more        B. less                C. most               D. Least

8.-- Dad, it's such a long way from our home to the park!

   -- You mean it's ______ to take a taxi?

    A. popular         B. necessary           C. possible            D. important

9.——Hello! Golden Sun Hotel. Can I help you?

——Do you have a room ______ for this weekend?

  A.available      B.useful      C.empty      D.possible

10.——Would you please drive ______ ? My plane is taking off.

   ——I'd like to.,but safety comes first.

  A. faster      B. better      C. more carefully      D.more slowly

11.——I' really ______ before the competition.

  ——Take it easy. Sure you are the best.

  A. cool      B. serious      C. nervous      D. Patient

12.——Jack, how are you feeling today?

  ——Much _______ .I think I can go to school tomorrow.

  A.better      B. worse      C. brighter      D. Weaker

13.——English is ______ too difficult for me.

   ——Don't give up. Nothing is difficult if you work hard.

  A.seldom       B.never      C. always      D. usually

 

八、动词及动词短语辨析(占题比例14%)

(1)动词的基本形式

表示动作或状态的词叫做动词。 根据其在句中的功能,动词可分为五类,分别为:系动词、及物动词、不及物动词、助动词、情态动词。

 

(2)系动词

系动词也称联系动词,作为系动词。有些不具词义;有些具有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,后边必须跟表语(也称补语),构成系表结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。

①状态系动词

可用来表示主语性质或状态,只有be一词,例如: 

⊙He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。(表示主语的身份,即性质) 

He is ill. 他病了。(表示状态)

②持续系动词

用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand。

⊙He always kept silent at meeting. 他开会时总保持沉默。 

This matter rests a mystery. 此事仍是一个谜。

③表像系动词

用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look, 例如: 

⊙He looks so tired. 他看起来很累。 

He seems (to be) very sad. 他看起来很伤心。

④感官系动词

感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste, look 例如: 

⊙This kind of cloth feels very soft.   这种布手感很软。 

This flower smells very sweet.     这朵花闻起来很香。

⑤变化系动词

这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,变化系动词主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come.

⊙He became mad after that. 自那之后,他疯了。 

She grew rich within a short time. 她没多长时间就富了。

⑥终止系动词

表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove, turn out, 表达"证实","变成"之意,例如: 

⊙The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。 

The search proved difficult. 搜查证实很难。 

His plan turned out a success. 他的计划终于成功了。(turn out表终止性结果)

 

(3)及物动词和不及物动词

及物动词和不及物动词统称实义动词。实义动词与系动词是相对的,实义动词意思完全,能独立用作谓语。

①及物动词

后面必须跟宾语,意义才完整的实义动词,叫做及物动词。英语中的及物动词有:interest, worry, guess, please, surprise, love等。

⊙How long can I keep the book?  这本书我能借多久?

②不及物动词

本身意义完整,后面不用跟宾语的实义动词,叫做不及物动词。

⊙My watch stopped. 我的表停了。

③特殊实义动词

英语动词很多既是及物动词又是不及物动词,如close, begin, study, leave, work等。

⊙The post office closes at 9:00 p. m邮局晚上9点关门。 

Close the window, please请关窗。 

Shall we begin now?我们现在开始吗? 

Bill began working as a sailor after he left school比尔毕业后当水手。 

They left yesterday他们昨天离开的。

 

(4)助动词

协助动词构成谓语动词词组的词叫助动词。被协助的动词称作主要动词,构成时态和语态。 助动词是语法功能词,自身没有词义,不可单独使用,它没有对应的汉译。

⊙He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。

(doesn't 是助动词,无词义;like是主要动词,有词义) 

 

(5)情态动词

情态动词本身有一定的意义但不完整,因此不能在句子中独立作谓语,只能在动词原型一起构成谓语,表示说话人对某一动作或状态的语气或态度。

情态动词通常没有人称和数的变化,常见的情态动词有如下几个:

can, must, have to, should, can.

can作为情态动词,有时态但无人称的变化,否定式是can not或can't,过去式是could,过去式的否定形式是could not或couldn't。它们有以下几种用法。

①can表示能力,could用于一般过去时,表示过去的能力。

②can和could表示许可或请求许可,could语气更委婉客气。

⊙Can I borrow a book? 我能借本书吗?

 

历年真题:

1.To protect environment, supermarkets don't _______ fre  plastic bags to shoppers.(2012.)

  A.take       B.show       C.provide       D.carry

2.——Smoking is bad for your health.

  ——You're right. I decide to ______ .(2012.)

  A.take it down       B.find it out       C.turn it off       D.give it up 

3.I can hardly hear what it is saying on TV. Would you please _______?(2011.)

  A. turn it up B. turn il down C. turn it on D. tuna it off

4.We can't do listening .practice today, for Miss Zhao's tape-recorder doesn't______. (2011.)

A. act 13. do C. serve D. Work

5.The food here smells good, but what does it _______ like?(2011.)

A.taste B. touch C. seem D. Feel

6.6.It's nice of you to ______ so much time showing me around your school.(2010.)

     A. take       B. spend              C. cost                D. Have

7. -- How can I ______ well with my lessons, Dad?

  -- Practice makes perfect.(2010.)

     A. work on           B. hold on             C. get on              D. keep on

8. -- Do you often watch Man and Nature on TV?

   --Sometimes. It's an interesting program, but I______ Sports News.(2010.)

     A. prefer          B. want      C. enjoy              D. Miss

9.——Long time no see.

——It ______ like years since I last saw you.(2009.)

  A.looks       B.seems      C.feels      D,sounds

10.——What a day! It' raining again! I'm afraid we can't fly a kite.

  ——Don't worry. It won't ______ long.(2009.)

  A.live         B.last         C.wait         D.go

11.——Our team ______ the match! We've got the first place!

  ——Well done! Congratulations!(2008.)

  A.hit         B.beat         C.won         D.watched

12.——Let's plan a surprise for our class. What's your idea?

  ——Why not ______ a short play?(2008.)             

  A.get on         B.keep on         C.have on         D.put on 

 

九、动词时态和语态

动词时态:(占题比例10%)

概念:动词是用来表示动词或状态的词,英语中不同时间发生的动作或状态,要用动词不同的形式来表示,这是动词的时态。

 

现以动词work为例将动词最常见的12种时态的不同形式列表如下:

体           式 一般式 进行式 完成式

现在体 work/works am/is/are working have/has worked

过去体 worked was/were working had worked

将来体 shall/will work shall/will be working shall/will have worked

过去将来体 should/would work should/would be working should/ would have worked

 

历年真题:

1. He promised to pick me up at the school gate. However. he __ yet.

  A. didn't arrive B. doesn't arrive C. isn't arriving D. hasn't arrived

2. Don't worry. Your package____ here until you come back, so enjoy shopping here.

  A. will keep B. has kept C. will be kept D. has been kept

3. -- Have you ever been to Shanghai, Mary?

   -- Yes. I _______ there for three clays with my parents last month.

A. have gone        B. have been          C. went               D. was

4. -- Are you going to the party? 

   - No, because I ______.

      A. have asked         B. haven't asked 

      C. have been asked    D. haven't been asked

5.-- Why didn't you go to the cinema with us this afternoon?

   -- I ______ at the station for my uncle from Beijing.

 A. was waiting       B. have waited      C. am waiting        D. will wait

6.Prison Break is the best American TV play that I_____  these years.

A.watch          B. will watch      C.have watched         D.was watching

7.--Alice, turn down the TV,please.  I_____on the phone.

 --Oh, sorry.

A.have talked      B. talked     C.am talking       D.talk

8. I called you just now, but nobody answered. where_____?

  --I was out with my mother.

A.were you      B. are you   C.have you gone      D.have you been 

9. The dress____smooth and soft.

  A.felt        B. feels   C.is felt      D.is feeling

10. Let's discuss the plan,shall we?

  Not now. I ____to an interview.

A.go     B. went  C.am going    D.was going

 

动词语态:(占题比例2%)

概念:语态是动词的一种形式,表示主语和谓语动词之间的具体关系,分为主动语态和被动语态两种。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,一般说来,只有需要动作对象的及物动词才有被动语态。

如:

He opened the door.(主动语态)

The door was opened .(被动语态)

 

基本构成:"助动词be+及物动词的过去分词”

 

较常见时态的几种被动语态,现以do 为例:

时态 语态 动词形式 例句

一般现在时 主动 Do/does We speak English.

被动 Am/is/are done English is spoken by us.

一般过去时

主动 did He broke the glass.

被动 Was/were done The glass was broken by him.

 

一般将来时 主动 Shall/will do I will eat this apple.

被动 Shall/will be done This apple will be eaten by me .

现在进行时

主动 Am/is/are doing He is watering flowers.

被动 Am/is /are being done Flowers are being watered by him.

现在完成时 主动 Have/has done I have read the book.

被动 Have/has been done The book has been read by me.

含情态动词 主动 Can/must/should+do We should plant more trees every year.

被动 Can/must/should+be done More trees should be planted every year.

 

历年真题:

1.It's difficult for the village children to cross the river for school.

---I  think a bridge_____over the river.

A.was built        B. Is being built      C.has been built        D.should be built

2.When you leave the room, make sure the door_____.

A.was locked      B. is locked  C. will be locked   D.should be locked

 

十、非谓语动词(占题比例3%)

非谓语动词是指在句子中不是谓语的动词,主要包括不定式、动名词和分词(现在分词和过去分词),即动词的非谓语形式。非谓语动词除了不能独立作谓语外,可以承担句子的任何成分。

动词不定式的基本形式是“to + 动词原形”,有时可以不带to。动词不定式没有人称和数的变化,在句中不能单独作谓语。动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征,因此可以在句中作宾语、宾语补足语、主语、定语。

功能 例句

作宾语 I want to make a room reservation. 我想要预定一个房间。

作宾补 Miss wang asked Kang kang to book the ticket. 王小姐让康康订票。

作主语 It's impolite to eat noisily in Cuba. 在古巴吃饭发出声音是不礼貌的。

作定语 The best way to travel is by train. 去(那里)旅行最好的方法是坐火车。

 

历年真题:

1.——Smoking is bad for your health.

——You are right. I decided to ______(12)

 A take it down  B find it out  C turn it off  D give it up

2.——these problem are too hard to________. Will you give me some advice?

——these are many ways, but the most important is to have a careful plan.(09)

 A work out    B look out    C hand out     D put out

3. To protect the environment, supermarkets don`t ________free plastic bags to shoppers.(12)

A take       B show           C provide         D carry

 

十一、情态动词(占题比例4%)

情态动词本身有一定的意义但不完整,因此不能在句子中独立作谓语,只能在动词原型一起构成谓语,表示说话人对某一动作或状态的语气或态度。

情态动词通常没有人称和数的变化,常见的情态动词有如下几个:

can, must, have to, should, can.

can作为情态动词,有时态但无人称的变化,否定式是can not或can't,过去式是could,过去式的否定形式是could not或couldn't。它们有以下几种用法。

①can表示能力,could用于一般过去时,表示过去的能力。

②can和could表示许可或请求许可,could语气更委婉客气。

⊙Can I borrow a book? 我能借本书吗?

 

历年真题:

  

1. ---Is Mr Brow driving here?

---I’m not sure.  He  _____ come by train. (08)

A. may       B. shall       C. need     D. must

2.---who’s the man over there? Is it Mr. Black?

---It _____be him. He’s much taller. (09)

A. can’t     B. mustn’t      C. should   D. may

3. There is enough time for you to go to the airport. You_____hurry now.(12)

A. should       B. needn’t      C. must    D. can’t

4.-- What will the weather be like tomorrow?

   -- It ______ be rainy, cloudy or sunny. Who knows? (10)

A. must           B. might              C. shall              D. Should

 

十二、简单句(占题比例1%)

概念:简单句的基本形式是由一个主语加一个谓语构成。其他各种句子形式都是由此句型发展而来。

五大基本句型:

1)主语+谓语,其谓语一般都是不及物动词,如:I arrive.

2)主语+连系动词+表语,这种句型称为主系表结构,其实连系动词在形式上也是一种谓语动词,如:I feel terrible today.

3)主语+谓语+宾语,这种句型可称为主谓宾结构,它的谓语一般多是及物动词,如:I like swimming,

4)主语+谓语+宾语+宾语,这种句型可称为主谓宾结构,其谓语应是可带双宾语的及物动词,两个宾语一个是间接宾语,一个是间接宾语,如:I give you an apple.

5)主语+谓语+宾语+宾补,这种句型可称为主谓宾补结构,其补语是宾语补语,与宾语一起构成符合宾语,如:I found him lazy.

历年真题:

1.--Kate, do you know_____it is from here to the gym?

      --About twenty-minutes' walk.(安徽卷单选第36题,2008年)

A.how  long    B. how far  C.how soon    D.how often

 

十三、复合句(占题比例4%)

(1)宾语从句

宾语是句子的一个重要成分,它可以由名词、代词、名词短语或句子充当。当一个句子充当宾语时,这个句子就称之为宾语从句。宾语从句与主句之间由连接词来连接。

①引导词

引导宾语从句的引导词按所引导的句子结构特点可以分为三类:

1)that引导的宾语从句(that在口语或非正式文体中常省略)

⊙Do you think (that) the children need to write a song? 你认为孩子们需要写一首歌吗?

2)if/whether引导的宾语从句

⊙I don't know if/whether you are right. 我不知道你是否正确。

3)疑问词引导的宾语从句

疑问词包括疑问代词(what, which, who, whose)和疑问代词(when, how, where, why)

⊙I ask Tom which Chinese dish is his favorite. 我问汤姆他最爱的是那一道中国菜。

Can you tell me where they are? 你能告诉我他们在哪里吗?

②语序

宾语从句用陈述句语序。

⊙Does he like Times English Post? Do you know? 他喜欢《时代英语报》?你知道吗?

≧Do you know if/whether he likes Times English Post? 你知道他是否喜欢《时代英语报》吗?

③时态

当主语中的谓语动词是一般现在时态时,宾语从句中的时态不受主句影响。当主句中的谓语动词是一般过去时态时,宾语从句则使用相应的过去时态。

⊙I think that I can sell newspapers. 我想我可以卖报纸。

I heard you had bad cold. 我听说你患了重感冒。

*如果宾语从句所表达的内容是客观真理或客观事实时,从句中动词的时态不受主句的谓语动词时态的限制。

The teacher said the earth moves round the sun. 老师说地球围绕着太阳转。

He said he is 40. 他说他已经40岁了。

(2)状语从句

在复合句中,修饰主句的动词、形容词或副词的从句叫作状语从句。状语从句根据其用途可分为时间、条件、原因、结果、比较、目的和让步状语从句。从句丛属连词引导。

①时间状语从句

引导时间状语从句的从属连词有:when, while, before, after, as , until, till, as soon as 等。

⊙When he was a young man, he worked in the country. 他年轻时在乡下工作。

He didn't raise his head until/till someone called him. 直到有人叫他的名字他才抬起头。

As soon as Darren saw his friends, he jumped up and down. 达伦一看见他的朋友就跳了起来。

②条件状语从句

由if, unless引导的状语从句叫做条件状语从句。

If you study hard, you'll pass the exam. 如果你努力学习,你就会通过考试的。

We will go there unless it rains. 如果不下雨,我们将去那里。

*在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,如果主句是一般将来时态或具有将来的含义,从句的谓语动词常用一般现在时态表示将来。

③原因状语从句

because, as, since, for均表示“因为,由于”。because语气最强,用来回答以why引导的疑问句,可表示已知或未知的事实。as语气较弱,较口语化,所表示的原因比较明显,或是已知的事实,故不强敌,as引导的从句多置于主句之前。since语气较弱,常表示对方已知的事实。for一般表示理由,进一步说明,在汉语中也可译为“因为”。

He didn't come to school because he was ill.  他没有来学校因为他病了。

As all the seats were full, he had to stand there. 由于所有的座位都坐满了,他只好站在那里。

Since you're going, I will go, too.  既然你要走,我也走。

The day breaks, for the birds are singing. 鸟儿在唱歌,天亮了。(for为并列连词)

④结果状语从句

1)so... That...(如此……以至于……)引导的状语从句。

2)so that(因此,所以)引导的状语从句。

3)such... that... 引导的状语从句。(有时可和so...that...引导的结果状语从句互换)

Jane is such a clever student that every teacher likes her a lot. 简是一个这么聪明的学生。

(3)*定语从句

(定语从句只要求理解,具体内容详见九年级下册第60页)

 

 

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