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高考英语阅读填空专题8 英语阅读填空

高考英语阅读填空专题8 英语阅读填空

【构建知识体系】

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考点1细节理解类题型

考点2篇章结构类题型

 

 

2015-2017年全国高考Ⅰ卷本专题考查分布明细统计

年份

章节

素材话题

体裁

 

考点分布

 

2015

第二节

重建人际关系中的信任的意义与措施

说明文

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2016

第二节

主要介绍了密码的设置方法和破解方法。

说明文

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2017

第二节

文章讲述了三年前,作者对露营一无所知,也不认为自己会喜欢露营。然而后来有过几次露营的经历,作者和他的家人开始爱上了露营。

记叙文

 

 

 

2015-2017年全国高考Ⅱ卷本专题考查分布明细统计

年份

章节

素材话题

体裁

 

考点分布

 

2015

第二节

怎样为马拉松比赛做准备

说明文

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2016

第二节

主要介绍了如何建造一个属于自己的美丽花园。

说明文

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2017

第二节

 

本文介绍了如何有效应对他人的过渡打搅的方法

说明文

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2016-2017年全国高考III卷本专题考查分布明细统计

年份

章节

素材话题

体裁

 

考点分布

 

2016

第二节

介绍了吃鱼对人的好处,以及新鲜鱼的挑选及烹饪方法。

说明文

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2017

第二节

主要介绍了几条关于调整好生物钟的建议

说明文

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【考纲解读】

考试大纲

要求

考纲解读

给出一篇缺少5个句子的文章,对应有七个选项,要求考生根据文章结构、内容,选择正确的句子,填入相应的空白处。

考查考生的逻辑思维能力,也就是对上下文之间、层次之间逻辑关系的判断能力

主要考查考生对文章的整体内容和结构,以及上下文逻辑意义的理解和掌握。选项特点:主旨概括句(文章整体内容);过渡性句子(文章结构);注释性句子(上下文逻辑意义)。

 

【剖析全国高考真题】——预测高考命题方向

1.【2017·新课标I】第二节  (共5小题;每小题2分,满分10分)  

根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

If anyone had told me three years ago that I would be spending most of my weekends camping. I would have laughed heartily. Campers, in my eyes, were people who enjoyed insects bites, ill-cooked meals, and uncomfortable sleeping bags. They had nothing in common with me.  36   

The friends who introduced me to camping thought that it meant to be a pioneer.

   37    We  sleep  in  a  tent, cooked over an open fire, and walked a long distance to take the shower and use the bathroom. This brief visit with Mother Nature cost me two days off from  work, recovering from a bad case of sunburn and the doctor`s bill for my son`s food poisoning.

I was, nevertheless, talked into going on another fun-filled holiday in the wilderness.  

  38    Instead, we had a pop-up camper with comfortable beds and an air conditioner. My nature-loving friends had remembered to bring all the necessities of life.

  39    We have done a lot of it since. Recently, we bought a twenty-eight-foot travel trailer complete with a bathroom and a built-in TV set. There is a separate bedroom, a modern kitchen with a refrigerator. The trailer even has matching carpet and curtains.

  40     It must be true that sooner or later, everyone finds his or her way back to nature. I recommend that you find your way in style.

A.This time there was no tent. B.Things are going to be improved. C.The trip they took me on was a rough one. D.I was to learn a lot about camping since then, however. E.I must say that I have certainly come to enjoy camping.

F. After the trip, my family became quite interested in camping.

G. There was no shade as the trees were no more than 3 feet tall.

【答案】

高考英语阅读填空,英语阅读填空,高考英语阅读填空专题8 英语阅读填空

36. D 根据前文可知三年前作者认为露营和自己无关,而后文中表明作者热爱露营。暗示此处作者对待露营的情感态度应该出现转变。D选项中的however就起到了很好的转折作用。其次,If anyone had told me three years ago that I would be spending most of my weekends camping暗示作者态度的转变就在三年前,D选项中的since then“自从那时候起”,和前文时间吻合。故选D。

37.C 根据后文We sleep in a tent, cooked over an open fire, and walked a long distance to take the shower and use the bathroom可知作者第一次露营条件很艰苦,C选项The trip they took me on was a rough one.中的rough暗示了这一点,符合语境。故选C。

38.A根据前文We sleep in a tent, cooked over an open fire, and walked a long distance to take the shower and use the bathroom可知作者第一次露营时住帐篷,露天生火做饭,走很远的距离去洗澡上厕所,条件很艰苦。而后文中Instead, we had a pop-up camper with comfortable beds and an air conditioner. 说明作者第二次露营有床有空调  A选项This time there was no tent“这次没有帐篷了”暗示作者进行了第二次露营,而且条件比较好,符合语境。故选A。

39.F 根据后文we bought a twenty-eight-foot travel trailer complete with a bathroom and a built-in TV set. There is a separate bedroom, a modern kitchen with a refrigerator. The trailer even has matching carpet and curtains.可知作者一家为了露营买了房车,里面设备齐全。既然花了这么大精力,说明作者一家人是喜欢露营的。F选项After the trip, my family became quite interested in camping“那次露营之后,我的家人开始对它感兴趣”符合语境,故选F。

40.E 根据后文It must be true that sooner or later, everyone finds his or her way back to nature. I recommend that you find your way in style.可知作者希望每个人能找到适合自己的回归自然的方法,而根据前文可知作者回归自然的方式就是露营。E选项I must say that I have certainly come to enjoy camping.“我必须得承认我真的开始享受露营”既是对文章第一段中作者态度转变的一个总结,也很好的衔接了后文。故选E。

【名师点睛】

七选五的考查形式是给考生呈现一篇缺了五句话的英语文章,并要求考生根据文章的结构、逻辑、上下文的内容选出相应的五句话填入空白处将文章补充完整。具体的解题步骤有以下几点:

步骤一:快速浏览一遍七个备选答案,先确定哪个选项适合放在文章的什么位置。通常有三个四个位置:标题,句首,句中,句尾。不同位置的句子有不同的特征。有时有的答案表述上就是错误的,可以直接从备选项中清除,以降低难度。

步骤二:快速浏览文章,确定文章体裁,抓住文章结构。一般说来,记叙文的语言是按时间发展顺序或因果关系排列的,常用的连接词有:then, later, after that, soon, after a while, in the end, so, as a result, because of that等。说明文常采用总-分-总的结构形式,第一段说明要说明的主题,下面几段多是从不同的角度来说明问题,最后总结,所以各段之间多是平行关系,经常出现举例说明的现象。议论文先抛出议题,然后从正反两个方面进行讨论,最后得出结论。新闻体裁的应用文首句为主题句,下面展开细节性的报道。

步骤三:分析篇章结构,找出各段的主题句或主旨大意。分析文章的层次包含两种形式:一种是分析整篇文章的层次,也就是段落,说明文和议论文这样体裁的文章,每段的第一句多是主题句。找到主题句有助于帮助确定选择的范围,即所选句子必须和该段主题一致。另一种是分析每一个段落内部的层次,也就是语篇层次。要真正体会句际间的意义关系,把握作者的思路,从语序上去发现断续点,理清层次。

步骤四:注意各选项中出现的句子衔接手段,寻找句中衔接标志词。文章的衔接手段有:重复式用某一词语或子范畴的词语,使用同义语表达,用总称指代具体事物或用具体事物指代整体,使用代词避免重复等。上述方法有助于段落的思路平稳在句子之间过渡。连贯使文章的每个段落、每个句子甚至每个短语融为一体。段落一致与句子衔接是文章连贯的两个必要因素。

步骤五:区分相似项七选五备选答案中有两个多余的选项,会对文章中两个空的选择构成干扰,这时要特别细致地比对相似选项,方法和答阅读理解时区分相似项一样。

 步骤六:用代入法,检查答案是否合理。将所有选择答案放回空白处,通读全文,检查文章内容是否语义连贯合理、紧扣主题,语篇结构是否通顺连贯、具有一致性、合乎逻辑,写作思路是否清晰明了,格式以及用语是否恰当贴切,从而判断选择的答案是否正确。

2.【2017·全国新课标II】 第二节 (共5小题;每小题2分,满分10分)

根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

Interruptions are one of the worst things to deal with while you’re trying to get work done.   36     ,there are several ways to handle things. Let’s take a look at them now.

    37       .Tell the person you’re sorry and explain that you have a million things to do and then ask if the of you can talk at a different time.

When people try to interrupt you, have set hours planned and let them know to come back during that time or that you’ll find them then.    38     .It can help to eliminate(消除) future interruptions.

When you need to someone, don’t do it in your own office.      39    .it’s much easier to excuse yourself to get back to your work than if you try to get someone out of your space even after explaining how busy you are

If you have a door to your office, make good use of it.     40    .If someone knocks and it’s not an important matter. Excuse yourself and let the person know you’re busy so they can get the hint(暗示) than when the door is closed, you’re not to be disturbed.

A. If you’re busy, don’t  feel  bad  about  saying  no

B. When you want to avoid interruptions at work zxx.k

C. Set boundaries for yourself as your time goes

D. If you’re in the other person’s office or in a public area

E. It’s important that you let them know when you’ll be available

F. It might seem unkind to cut people shirt when they interrupt you

G. Leave it open when you’re available to talk and close it when you’re not

36-40 BAEDG

37.根据后文“Tell the person you’re sorry and explain that you have a million things to do and then ask if the of you can talk at a different time”,这一段主要是讲述,学会在自己很忙的时候去拒绝别人。故选A。

38.根据横线前“have set hours planned and let them know to come back during that time or that you’ll find them then”安排好时间,让他们知道你在什么时候回来,或者告诉他们,你会去找他们,再结合后文“It can help to eliminate(消除) future interruptions”这样做可以帮助你消除未来被打断的可能,根据句意的衔接,

故选E。

39.根据后文“it’s much easier to excuse yourself to get back to your work than if you try to get someone out of your space even after explaining how busy you are”,此句中it指代前文“don’t do it in your own office.”,也就是说此段中作者认为比起在自己的办公室解释,不在自己的办公室更容易点。故选D

40.根据“If you have a door to your office,make good use of it.”可知,此段主要是讲述关于如何利用自己办公室的门来防止被打扰。故选G。

【名师点睛】

   本文37题属于七选五阅读中最常见的设空在段首的方法,通常是段落主题句。认真阅读后文内容,根据段落一致性原则,查找同义词或其他相关的词,推断出主题句。本题我们根据后文“Tell the person you’re sorry and explain that you have a million things to do and then ask if the of you can talk at a different time”可知我们应该学会在自己很忙的时候去拒绝别人。故选A。当七选五阅读设空在句首时,还可能存在以下两种情况:

   1. 属于段落间的过渡句。这时要前瞻后望找启示,即阅读上一段结尾部分,通常正确答案与上一段结尾有机地衔接起来,并结合下一段内容,看所选的答案是否将两段内容连贯起来。

   2. 与后文是并列、转折、因果关系等。着重阅读后文第一两句,锁定线索信号词,然后在选项中查找相关特征词。通常正确答案的最后一句与空白后的第一句在意思上是紧密衔接的,因此这两句间会有   某种的衔接手段,尤其当选项是几句话时。比如,如果选项中出现时间年代时,往往要注意与原文中年代的前后对应关系。 

考点:考查说明文阅读

3.【2017·新课标III】第二节  (共5小题;每小题2分,满分10分)  

根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

Lots of people find it hard to get up in the morning and put the blame on the alarm clock. In fact, the key to easy morning wake-up lies in resting your body clock   36     Here is how to make one.

●    37     In order to make a change, you need to decide why it's important. Do you want to get up in time to have breakfast with your family, get in some exercise, or just be better prepared for your day? Once you are clear about your reason, tell your family or roommates about the change you want to make.

l Rethink mornings. Now that you know why you want to wake up, consider re-arranging your morning activities. If you want time to have breakfast with your family, save some time the night before by setting out clothes, shoes, and bags.   38   That’s a quarter-hour more you could be sleeping if you bought a coffee maker with a timer.

l Keep your sleep/wake schedule on weekends. If you’re tired out by Friday night, sleeping in on Saturday could sound wonderful. But compensating on the weekends actually feeds into your sleepiness the following week, a recent study found.   39   

l Keep a record and evaluate it weekly. Keep track of your efforts and write down how you feel. After you’ve tried a new method for a week, take a look at your record.   40   If not, take another look at other methods you could try.

A. Get a sleep specialist.

B. Find the right motivation.

C. A better plan for sleep can help.

D. And consider setting a second alarm.

E. If the steps you take are working, keep it up.

F. Stick to your set bedtime and wake-up time, no matter the day.

G. Reconsider the 15 minutes you spend in line at the café to get coffee.

高考英语阅读填空,英语阅读填空,高考英语阅读填空专题8 英语阅读填空

38. G 根据下句内容可知,作者建议人们买一个可以定时的咖啡机,这样可以节约15分钟的喝咖啡时间,能够多睡15分钟,文中的a quarter-hour 和选项中的15 minutes呼应,是信息提示词。故选G。

39.F 根据段落小标题可知,本段是建议人们在周末也要坚持自己的作息时间,由此推断Stick to your set bedtime and wake-up time, no matter the day.和本段标题意思相同。故选F。

40.E  后句建议人们如果这样做没作用就尝试新办法,由此推断该空与If not对应,提出如果有效果的话如何去做。故选E。

【高考预测】

纵观近两年全国高考试题,预测2018年全国高考试题还会

①体裁以说明文和议论文为主(300词左右),且结构清晰(提出问题→解决问题),过程完整,适合考查标题概括、主题句和过渡句等。

②以考查细节理解类题型为主。

 

【精讲研法】——课堂讲解突破核心考点 

 

考点一  细节理解类题型

(1)词汇复现

【例1】Parents should help their children understand money. 71  so you may start talking about money when your child shows an interest in buying things, candy or toys, for example.

D. Talk yourself what things that cost money are most important to you.

E. Ask yourself what things that cost money are most important to you.

F. Talk about how the money bought the thing after you leave the toy store.

G. The best time to teach a child anything about money is when he shows an interest.

(2011新课标)

 

【答案】G

【解析】

高考英语阅读填空,英语阅读填空,高考英语阅读填空专题8 英语阅读填空

 

规律方法1: 词汇复现法

复现是保证文章前后衔接而经常使用的一种写作手段,即作者在文章上下文不同的位置对同一个概念进行重复描述。包括原词复现、同源词复现、同义词复现、近义词复现、反义词复现等。

【变式精练】There are times in our lives such as when we have recently moved into a new town, or changed our jobs or schools. Such changes often leaves us without a friend   71 . But for many of us the process is difficult and requires courage. 

D. Try not to find fault with your friends.

E. Making new friends comes easy for some people.

F. For a friendship to develop you need to stay in touch.                 

【答案】E

【解析】

(2)代词线索

【例2】Try taking these four steps. the next time you are stressed:      (1) Get support. When you need help, reach out to the people who care about you. Talk      To "trusted adult, such as "parent or other relatives.   72    They might have had similar problems, such as dealing with a test, or the death of a beloved pet.

D. Ah, it feels so good when the stress is gone. E. You need to figure out what the problem is. F. And don't forget about your friends.                

【答案】72.F

【解析】由前文parents和relatives可以推知与之并列的friends,故选F。

 

规律方法2:代词线索 英语表达中代词出现的频率极高,代词的作用无非是指代前面提及的名词或形容词概念,巧妙利用这样的指代关系和根据代词的单复数差异可以准确而快速地解题。it可指代单数名词或整个句子;they或them 指代复数名词;one指代单数可数名词;that指 代不可数名词或句子;this指代单数名词或句子;these 或those指代前句的复数名词。

【变式精练】   73   They say the first step is to admit that you are angry and to recognize the 

real cause of the anger, then decide if the cause is serious enough to get angry about.

B. They said that laughter is much healthier than anger. 

F. Anger is a normal emotion that we all feel from time to time.

G. Doctors say the solution is learning how to deal with anger.

【答案】G

 

【解析】73空后的they与A项doctors照应。

 

(3)数字线索

【例3】As in China, the weather is different from area to area.___17____ The temperatures can 

fall to –60℃ ,which is 60℃below freezing. In the capital, Ottawa, the average of winter 

temperature is –10℃,and in summer 21 ℃.___18____ The average January temperature is 3 ℃,and in July it is 18 ℃ 

F. In the North, the winters are long and hard with snow for six months. 

G. The west coast of Canada is the warmest place in winter 

【答案】

17. F

18.G

规律方法3:数字线索   包括具体数字以及和数字相关的词汇诸如ratio, rate等等。作者列出数字,除了和其他数字进行对比和比较之外,还可以用数据来说明一个观点。

【变式精练】Researchers analyzed the contents of 28 strawberry-flavored products sold in stores.  72   Of  the

 11 products that did contain strawberries, five of them contained less than one percent real fruit.In addition, each juice box contained nearly eight teaspoons of sugar. 

A.The products which contain real fruit are popular with people.

B.Even products advertised as more natural often contained no fruit.

C.They found that about 60 percent of them didn't contain any fruit at all.

D.If companies can cut their costs by using flavoring, they are likely to do so.

E. It is important and necessary to demand a small amount of flavoring in the products. F. Actually the product contains just a tiny percentage of strawberry or even no fruit at all. G. The Food Commission suggested all flavors used in a product should be listed on the packaging.

【答案】

72. C

【解析】

 

(4)逻辑关系线索

【例4】Over the last 25 years, British society has changed a great deal—or at least many parts of it have. ______1_______ . Ideas about social class—whether a person is “working-class” or “middle-class” —are one area in which changes have been extremely slow.

A.Nowadays, a great deal has changed

B.Both of these provided him and his family with security

C.As a result, differences in life-styles and attitudes came into existence

D.However, we still have a wide gap between the well-paid and the low-paid

E.In recent years, the working-class people have begun to design long- term plans

F.In some ways, however, very little has changed, particularly where attitudes are concerned

G.The changes in both life-styles and attitudes are probably most easily seen among younger 

people

【答案】1. F

【解析】该空前一句提到英国社会改变很大,而后一句则说社会阶层的想法却改变相当缓慢,所以空格处使用了however表示转折,承上启下,故选F。

规律方法4:逻辑关系线索  (a)并列与递进关系: and, or, also,neither…nor…,either…or…,likewise, similarly, equally, in the same way, that is to say ,as well as, the same …as, besides, additionally, furthermore, moreover, in addition to ,what is more

 (b)因果关系:because, for, since, as, thus, hence, therefore, so, so…that, consequently, accordingly, due to, thanks to, as a result ,because of ,in that, for this reason, of course

 (c)转折让步关系:but, however, yet, on the contrary, by contrast, on the other hand, unfortunately, while, whereas, unlike, rather than ,instead of, it is true that, of course, although, though, even though, even if, nevertheless, despite, in spite of

 (d)时间关系:afterwards, at first, at last, finally, first, firstly, in the first place, to start with,in the mean time, last, later, next, second, secondly, then, third, thirdly, to begin with以及一些具体的时间。

【变式精练】You will want to take notes during classroom discussions and while reading a textbook or doing research for a report. 72 Whenever or however you take notes, keep in mind that note-taking is a selective process.

A. Use words, not complete sentences.

B. There are three practical note-taking methods.

C. You must write your notes on separate paper.

D. Otherwise, you may not be able to read your notes later.

E. you will also want to develop your own method for taking notes.

F. That means you must first decide what is important enough to include in your notes.

G. First, the simple act of writing something down makes it easier for you to understand and remember it.

【答案】72. E

【解析】

考点二  细节理解类题型

(1)问题在段首或是小标题

【例1】 3    Every day, when she comes back home from work, she sets about doing housework, sweeping the living room and bedrooms or cleaning the furniture, and putting everything in good order. She seems to be busy all the time. As she has been very busy working every day, she looks older than her age. But she looks as cheerful and happy as ever. Mother never buys expensive dresses for herself, but she often buys some inexpensive but high quality clothes for us.

A. She enjoys listening to classic music.

C. She loves her students and cares for them.

D. She never goes to expensive restaurants to enjoy meals.

E. My mother is hard-working and never wastes money.

【答案】3. E

【解析】本题考查主旨概括句。本段内容主要写了“她下班就做家务”,其次是“她从不给自己买昂贵的衣服,从不去高档的饭店吃饭。”说明妈妈既勤劳又节俭。所以应选E

【例2】●    3    When a person is asking a question, show interest and a desire to understand the question by listening and asking for clarification.

●Buy time.

When facing a hard question, most people can’t give an answer immediately.Buy time by repeating the question in your own words. 4   These techniques allow you to quickly organize your thoughts as well as to make sure you will be correctly answering the question.

●Suggest a private meeting.

A one-on-one meeting is a calmer setting than speaking in front of your peers. 5  

A. Show your true interest. B. Restate the question with respect. C. Some ideas can be quite concrete. D. There were many difficult questions. E. It can also be more effective in exchanging ideas. F. You many also ask for clarification on the question. G. Here are some ideas that can help you prepare for your next meeting.

【答案】3. A

 

规律方法1:如果问题在段首或是小标题?

通常是段落主题句。认真阅读后文内容,根据段落一致性原则,查找同义词或其他相关的词,推断出主题句。关注每段首尾句,了解大意知主题。

 

【变式精练】 3  .On the one hand,a yellow room makes most people feel more cheerful and more relaxed than a dark green one;and a red dress brings warmth and cheer to the coldest winter day. 4(A)  .A black bridge over the Thames River, near London.used to be the scene of more suicides(自杀)than any other bridge in the area—until it was repainted green.The number of suicide attempts immediately fell sharply.Perhaps it would have fallen even more if the bridge had been done in pink or baby blue.

A.On the other hand,black is depressing.

B.The rooms are painted in different colors as you like.

C.They tell us that we do not choose our favorite color as grow up—we are born with our preference.

D.If you do,you must be an optimist(乐观主义者),a leader or an active person who enjoys life.

E.Light and bright colors make people not only happier but more active. F.Life is like a picture or a poem,full of different colors. G..Colors do influence our moods—there is no doubt about it

【答案】3. G

 

(2)问题在段尾

【例2】By the time I was 12, My grandmother thought I had done such a good job that she promoted me to selling cosmetics(化妆品). I developed the ability to look customers directly in the eye. Even though I was just a kid, women would ask me such things as “What color do you think I should wear? ”I took a real interest in their questions and was able to translate what they wanted into makeup(化妆)ideas. 74  

A.Later I received 50 cents an hour.

B.Before long, she let me sit there by myself.

C.I ended my selling a record amount of cosmetics.

D.Today I still carry that lesson with me: I listen to customers.

E. My grandma’s trust taught me how to handle responsibility.  F. Soon I found myself looking more beautiful than ever before.  G. Watching my money grow was more rewarding than anything I could have bought.(2010辽宁)

【答案】74. C

【解析】考查上下文的理解判断能力。本段讲述祖母因作者的出色表现而让她帮助销售化妆品,而C选项内容恰好是讲述她的销售成果,与语境相吻合,所以选C。

规律方法2:如果问题在段尾?

通常是结论、概括性语句。注意在选项中查找表示结果、结论、总结等的信号词,如therefore, as a result, thus, hence, in short, to sum up, to conclude, in a word等词语,选项中也可发现前文的同义词句。

【变式精练】Nowadays in China, parents care about their children’s education more than anything else. They spend a lot coaching(训练) their children in their studies. Some even hire teachers for their children. Many have their children sent to after-class schools.____.

A. It seems as if a better education is all that parents expect for their children.

B. Skills and knowledge means competition.

C. Skills and knowledge doesn’t mean all.

【答案】A

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