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淮南寒假高中英语

淮南寒假高中英语

【高考预测】

纵观近几年全国高考试题,预测2018年全国高考试题还会

①Ⅰ卷在选材上继续保持知识性和趣味性,语篇长度适中,题材与体裁广泛,彰显文化特色,重点考查考生快速获取、处理、分析信息的能力。细节理解题占总量的60%左右,难度与上年持平,预计难度系数0.6。

②Ⅱ卷文章体裁继续延续记叙文和说明文占主体的局面,另有一篇议论文和一篇广告类说明文。题型以细节理解题为主,推理判断题略有所增加,词义猜测题2题左右。

【精讲研法】——课堂讲解突破核心考点 

 

考点一  细节判断题

【例1】Conflict is on the menu tonight at the café La Chope. This evening, as on every Thursday night, psychologist Maud Lehanne is leading two of France’s favorite pastimes, coffee drinking and the “talking cure”. Here they are learning to get in touch with their true feelings. It isn’t always easy. They customers - some thirty Parisians who pay just under $2 (plus drinks) per session - care quick to intellectualize (高谈阔论),slow to open up and connect. “You are forbidden to say ‘one feels,’ or ‘people think’,” Lehane told them. “Say ‘I think,’ ‘Think me’.”

A café society where no intellectualizing is allowed? It couldn’t seem more un-French. But Lehanne’s psychology café is about more than knowing oneself: It’s trying to help the city’s troubled neighborhood cafes. Over the years, Parisian cafes have fallen victim to changes in the French lifestyle - longer working hours, a fast food boom and a younger generation’s desire to spend more time at home. Dozens of new theme cafes appear to change the situation. Cafes focused around psychology, history, and engineering are catching on, filling tables well into the evening.

   The city’s psychology cafes, which offer great comfort, are among the most popular places. Middle-aged homemakers, retirees, and the unemployed come to such cafes to talk about love, anger, and dreams with a psychologist. And they come to Lehanne’s group just to learn to say what they feel. “There’s a strong need in Paris for communication,” says Maurice Frisch, a cafe La Chope regular who works as a religious instructor in a nearby church. “People have few real friends. And they need to open up.” Lehanne says she’d like to see psychology cafes all over France. “If people had normal lives, these cafes wouldn’t exist”, she says, “If life weren’t a battle, people wouldn’t need a special place just to speak.” But them, it wouldn’t be France.

34. What are theme cafes expected to do?

A. Create more jobs.

B. Supply better drinks.

C. Save the cafe business.

D. Serve the neighborhood.

35. Why are psychology cafes becoming popular in Paris?

A. They bring people true friendship.

B. They give people spiritual support.

C. They help people realize their dreams.

D. They offer a platform for business links.

【答案】

34. C 

35. B  

规律方法1: 如何解决细节判断题?

细节判断题属于深层理解题,要求根据语篇内容,推断具体细节。做此类题目关键是要正确把握文章的内在关系,理解文章的真正含义,要忠实于原文,千万不能主观臆断,随意揣测,更不能以自己的观点代替作者的观点。此类题目的题干一般包括六个动词:infer(推断),indicate(象征,暗示),imply(暗示),suggest(暗示),assume(假定,设想)和conclude(推断,做出结论)。

 

【变式精练】

【广东七校联合体2018届高三第二次联考试】C

Teaching can be one of the most satisfying jobs in the United States. Yet many American teachers say they feel overworked, undervalued, and underpaid. This has led to what education experts call “teacher burnout,” a feeling of mental, physical, and emotional exhaustion.

In all, nearly 50 percent of American teachers leave the profession before their fifth year. That information comes from a 2010 study by the advisory service McKinsey & Company.

And, a 2016 study from Penn State University found that 46 percent of teachers report high daily stress. Teachers say the stress affects their sleep, health, teaching performance, and quality of life. The study identified mindfulness training as one promising solution for improving teacher well-being.

The Greater Good Science Center at the University of California —Berkeley studies the science and practice of well-being. It defines mindfulness as keeping “a moment-by-moment awareness of our thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and surrounding environment.”

A person can reach this emotional state by spending time in quiet thought, without judging these thoughts and feelings. A number of people also meditate — they take slow, deep breaths to become calm.

Many organizations around the country have designed mindfulness training programs for schools. Some of them are designed for teachers. The programs seek to reduce teacher stress while helping them be more effective in the classroom.

Maureen Naughton is a seventh grade science teacher at a public middle school in the Bronx section of New York City. As a highly active teacher, Naughton would sometimes forget to take time to herself. But after the programs she shared the methods such as mindful walking and mindful eating — ways of enjoying those activities fully instead of being distracted by worries or responsibilities.

Naughton also said the deep breathing methods help her to maintain calm when faced with the stress of trying to “meet everyone’s needs.”

11. What can we infer from Naughton’s words?

A. The deep breathing methods are a good way to let her keep calm when faced with stress.

B. She dislikes the deep breathing methods.

C. Don’t be distracted by worries or possibilities.

D. Enjoy all kinds of activities carefully.

【答案】  11. A

11. A推理判断题。根据文章最后Naughton also said the deep breathing methods help her to maintain calm when faced with the stress of trying to “meet everyone’s needs.”诺顿还说,深呼吸的方法帮助她在面对“满足每个人的需求”的压力时保持冷静。可知面对压力时,深呼吸也是一种好的方法。故选A。

考点二  文章来源题

【例2】The baby is just one day old and has not yet left hospital.She is quiet but alert(警觉).Twenty centimeters from her face researchers have placed a white card with two black spots on it.She stares at it carefully.A researcher removes the card and replaces it by another,this time with the spots differently spaced.As the cards change from one to the other,her gaze(凝视) starts to lose its focus—until a third,with three black spots,is presented.Her gaze returns:she looks at it for twice as long as she did at the previous card.Can she tell that the number two is different from three,just 24 hours after coming into the world?

Or do newborns simply prefer more to fewer?The same experiment,but with three spots shown before two,shows the same return of interest when the number of spots changes.Perhaps it is just the newness?When slightly older babies were shown cards with pictures of objects (a comb,a key,an orange and so on),changing the number of objects had an effect separate from changing the objects themselves.Could it be the pattern that two things make,as opposed to three?No again.Babies paid more attention to squares moving randomly on a screen when their number changed from two to three,or three to two.The effect even crosses between senses.Babies who were repeatedly shown two spots became more excited when they then heard three drumbeats than when they heard just two;likewise(同样地) when the researchers started with drumbeats and moved to spots. (2013·新课标全国Ⅰ,B)

63.Where does this text probably come from?

A.Science fiction.  B.Children’s literature.

C.An advertisement.  D.A science report.

【答案】D

规律方法2:如何解决文章来源题?

做此类题目要求读者具备一定的常识,这样文章的内容才能与读者本身已具备的常识结合起来。做此类题目应从文章的内容和结构来判断其出处。如果来源于报纸,前面一般会出现日期、地点或通讯社名称;如果是广告,其格式很容易辨认;产品说明和药品说明也很容易辨认。

【变式精练】

【湖北八校2018届高三上学期第一次联考】B

LAS VEGAS — It was different in the light of day.

There was no ‘pop, pop, pop’ of gunfire, no screams. Just a quiet lot of cars abandoned by those, like Kassidy Owen, who escaped with their lives.

“It’s strange to hear the silence,” Owen said, “because all I remember was the noise.”

The 22-year-old was one of dozens of concertgoers who returned to the scene of the Route 91 Harvest festival on Wednesday morning to fetch the vehicles they left behind as they fled from a gunman raining down bullets from high above in the tower of the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino across the street.

Survivors of the deadly mass shooting in Las Vegas on Sunday needed their cars to move on with their lives — to get back to work, to school, home. It was the first time they were returning to a scene that would forever change them, when joy and celebration and music turned into killing and horror.

Before they could move forward, they had to go back to the place where they thought they were going to die.

Owen had run to her car to hide and had tried to drive away, but she couldn’t. People were running, bodies dropped to the ground, and cars bottlenecked in the parking lot. During a brief pause after more than 10 minutes of gunfire, she worried the lights of her SUV made everyone inside a shining target.

“They’re shooting again!” her best friend’s brother screamed. “‘Turn off the car!’”

That’s when she got out and fled.

“I just remember shutting the door and running,” Owen said.

Now, nearly three days later, she was back, sitting in the driver’s seat of her SUV. Her eyes were swollen and red. This was a long way from over.

“You just keep hearing the gunshots in your head,” Owen said.

7. Where is the text probably taken from?

A. A story book.    B. A newspaper.

C. A guide book.    D. A research report.

【答案】 7. B

考点三  读者对象题

【例3】A MENTORING(导师制) program is giving life changing opportunities to Banbury youth.

Young Inspirations was founded two years ago to provide mentoring sessions for students and unemployed young adults aged 11 to 21.

Alex Goldberg,the program’s founder,said:“We set up Young Inspirations because we wanted to give young people experiences which will potentially be life changing and broaden their outlook.”

“We try to create work experience opportunities that will really make a difference to our youth.For example,we’ve secured internships(实习) with world­famous firms such as Honda.”

“At a time of funding cutbacks where schools are finding it more and more difficult to offer this kind of mentoring,it is extremely important that these opportunities are available both to help youth with their school work and grades and to give them opportunities which may help shape their futures.” Kieran Hepburn,14,is one of a group of Banbury youth who has benefited from the program so far.In October the Banbury School pupil was accompanied by Young Inspirations staff to Paris where he was an observer at the United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) International Youth Forum(论坛).

The event was held for young people from around the world,to seek their views on how the future of youth and education should look.Kieran joined several hundred observers mostly in their 20s and was the only UK school pupil to attend the event.Kieran thinks the trip was a life changing experience.“Before we left I didn’t quite know what to make of it but when we got there we didn’t stop,it was amazing,” he said,“We went to three or four hours of debates each day and then did something cultural each afternoon.”

The main theme of the forum was how youth can drive change in political and public life.It dealt with issues(问题) such as drug abuse,violence and unemployment.

Kieran said:“It has really helped me to improve my confidence and social skills as well as my school grades and I was voted most improved pupil at school in August.”

The Young Inspirations mentoring sessions take place each Friday in Banbury.For details visit www.younginspirations.com. (2013·福建,E)

71.The Young Inspirations mentoring program aims to ________.

A.train staff for world­famous firms

B.offer job opportunities to young adults

C.provide youth with unique experiences

D.equip the unemployed with different skills

【答案】C

规律方法3:如何解决读者对象题?

做此类题目通常从文章内容入手,明确所谈话题及具体内容,体会作者使用的语言适合于哪一群体,这样才能根据文章的特点对号入座,从而得出正确判断。

【变式精练】             

【河北省保定市2017届高三11月摸底考试】

  Why not create new memories to share with your children? Remember as a kid how thrilled you were to spend quality time outdoors with your family? Together in the fresh air, playing catch, fishing on a boat or building sand castles, you hoped that these loving, fun-filled moments would last forever. Here are 4 ways to create memorable experiences with your kids this summer.

Hit the beach

Pack your bathing suits, sun cream and towels - a beach bound adventure offers warm memories for all family members. Remember swimming in warm water at the shoreline, playing among the sands, and diving into the refreshing surf after a game of beach volleyball? You can recreate these happy experiences.

Play Street Hockey(曲棍球)

The best thing about summer street hockey is that loved ones of all skill levels can join in for an afternoon of physical activity, outdoor fun and competition. Channel your inner Sidney Crosby or Hayley Wickenheiser and see who can score the most goals. 

Camp

Sleep under the stars, cook on a campfire and swim in a stream - camping in the great outdoors is a sure way to have wonderful family memories. Some campsites offer equipment such as full bathrooms, showers and sleeping bags. For more information visit Parks Canada’s website.

Take a Road Trip

Traveling along the highway with the windows down, wind rushing through your hair and the radio turned up loud enough for you to sing along. Who didn’t love a summertime journey in the backseat of their parents’ car as a kid? This summer, give your kids a taste of what you enjoyed at their age. Take a family road trip exploring together.

25. Who is the text intended for?

   A. Teachers                          B. Coaches 

    C. Parents                          D. Players

【解析】

考点四  观点态度题

【例4】It happened to me recently. I was telling someone how much I had enjoyed reading Barack Obama’s Dreams From My Father and how it had changed my views of our President. A friend I was talking to agreed with me that it was ,in his words, “a brilliantly(精彩地)written book”. However, he then went on to talk about Mr Obama in a way which suggested he had no idea of his background at all. I sensed that I was talking to a book liar.

And it seems that my friend is not the only one. Approximately two thirds of people have lied about reading a book which they haven’t. In the World Book Day’s “Report on Guilty Secrets”, Dreams From My Father is at number 9. The report lists ten books, and various authors, which people have lied about reading, and as I’m not one to lie too often (I’d hate to be caught out ),I’ll admit here and now that I haven’t read the entire top ten . But I am pleased to say that, unlike 42 percent of people, I have read the book at number one, George Orwell’s 1984. I think it’s really brilliant.

The World Book Day report also has some other interesting information in it. It says that many people lie about having read Jane Austen, Charles Dickens, Fyodor Dostoevsky(I haven’t read him, but haven’t lied about it either )and Herman Melville.

Asked why they lied, the most common reason was to “impress” someone they were speaking to. This could be tricky if the conversation became more in –depth!

But when asked which authors they actually enjoy, people named J. k. Rowling, John Grisham, Sophie Kinsella (ah, the big sellers, in other words). Forty-two percent of people asked admitted they turned to the back of the book to read the end before finishing the story(I’ll come clean: I do this and am astonished that 58 percent said they had never done so). (2013·全国卷Ⅰ)

67. What is the author’s attitude to 58%of readers?

A. Favorable.

B. Uncaring

C. Doubtful

D. Friendly

【答案】C

【解析】

规律方法4:如何解决观点态度题?

做此类题目必须透过文章的字面意义去理解。作者的态度和观点无非也就是三种:支持、赞同、乐观;反对、批评、怀疑、悲观;中立、客观。作者的态度和观点常用一些形容词、副词和不定意义的动词来表达,如possible, impossible, seem, strange等。这时需要注意的是:一定要理清作者所列举的事例与其观点、态度是一致的还是相反的。有些文章作者的观点态度隐含在文章的字里行间,需要通读全文,才能做出正确的判断。注意熟悉一些常见的有关作者情感、态度的词语。

褒义词有:supportive(支持的);positive(积极的);optimistic(乐观的);enthusiastic(热情的)等。

贬义词有:negative(否定的,消极的);ironic(讽刺的);critical(批评的);disgusted(厌恶的);disappointed(失望的)等。

中性词有:indifferent(漠不关心的);uninterested(不感兴趣的);objective(客观的);neutral(中立的)等。

 

【变式精练】             

【山东省曲阜市2018届高三上学期期中】B

Most people say that most people have not more than 30 friends at any given time, and 400 over the whole of their lives. However, on social networking sites, most users have about 150 friends. If these numbers are correct, then friendship means different things in different situations.

Also, there are no rules about friendship. There are no instructions about how to make friends, how to keep friendships going, and how to finish friendships if we want to move on. People have very different opinions about this: some people would die for their friends and they value them more than family. Others say that friends are temporary, only there to help each other until they are no longer needed. If people with such different views become friends, this can lead to problems.

Because of these different definitions of friendship, it is easy to be unhappy about our friendships. We may want them to be deeper or closer, or we may want to have more friends in our lives. Sometimes we simply do not have the lime to develop our friendships, or we fear we have left it too late in life to start. If we move to another country or city, we have to find ways, to make new friends again.

This dissatisfaction shows us how important friendships are for most of us. We should not think that it could be too late to build friendships. We also need to understand that the need to be around other people is one that is shared by many. Therefore, we should not be too frightened about starting to talk to people who in the future may become our friends: it is likely that they too would like to get closer to us. Remember what people say: strangers are friends we have not met yet.

6. We can learn from the text that most of us ________.

A. are frightened to talk to people

B. build friendships late in life

C. are dissatisfied with our friends

D. need to be with others

7. What is the author’s attitude towards talking to a stranger?

A. Uninterested    B. Positive

C. Doubtful    D. Cautious

【答案】   6. D    7. B

7. 推理判断题。由Therefore, we should not be too frightened about starting to talk to people who in the future may become our friends: it is likely that they too would like to get closer to us. Remember what people say: strangers are friends we have not met yet.可推断出作者对于和陌生人说话,持肯定态度,选B。

考点五  预测推断题

【例5】Your glasses may someday replace your smartphone,and some New Yorkers are ready for the switch.Some in the city can’t wait to try them on and use the maps and GPS that the futuristic eyewear is likely to include.

“I’d use it if I were hanging out with friends at 3 a.m.and going to the bar and wanted to see what was open,” said Walter Choo,40,of Fort Greene.

The smartphone­like glasses will likely come out this year and cost between $250 and $600,the Times said,possibly including a variation of augmented(增强的) reality,a technology already available on smartphones and tablets(平板电脑) that overlays information onto the screen about one’s surroundings.So,for example,if you were walking down a street,indicators would pop_up showing you the nearest coffee shop or directions could be plotted out and come into view right on the sidewalk in front of you.

“As far as a mainstream consumer product,this just isn’t something anybody needs,” said Sam Biddle,who writes for Gizmodo.com. “We’re accustomed to having one thing in our pocket to do all these things,” he added,“and the average consumer isn’t gonna be able to afford another device(装置) that’s hundreds and hundreds of dollars.”

9to5Google publisher Seth Weintraub,who has been reporting on the smartphone­like glasses since late last year,said he is confident that this type of wearable device will eventually be as common as smartphones.

“It’s just like smartphones 10 years ago,” Weintraub said. “A few people started getting emails on their phones,and people thought that was crazy. Same kind of thing. We see people bending their heads to look at their smartphones,and it’s unnatural,” he said. “There’s gonna be improvements to that,and this a step there.” (2013·福建,B)

63.We can learn from the last two paragraphs that the smartphone­like glasses ________.

A.may have a potential market

B.are as common as smartphones

C.are popular among young adults

D.will be improved by a new technology

【答案】A

规律方法5:如何解决预测推断题?

有些题目要求根据语篇,对事件可能的结局或下一段可能涉及的内容等进行猜测推理。做此类题目时,务必把握作者的写作思路,如文章可能按事件发展的经过描写,也可能按因果关系、对比关系来叙述,从而做出比较科学的、合情合理的预测判断。特别要注意文章最后一段的内容及最后几句话。

【变式精练】             

【四川省成都外国语学校2018届高三12月月考】D

The Indian government may use 3D paintings as virtual speed breakers(减速带) on major highways and roads, in order to check speeding and careless driving, and finally make its deadly roads a little safer. "We are trying out 3D paintings used as virtual speed breakers to avoid unnecessary requirements of speed breakers," India's transport minister Nitin Gadkari wrote.

The optical illusions(视觉错觉) are supposed to encourage drivers to slow down automatically. Earlier, India had ordered the removal of all speed breakers from highways, which are considered to be a safety hazard for high-speed vehicles. India has the highest number of road accident deaths in the world. According to the World Health Organisation, over 200000 people are killed by road accidents.

The use of optical illusions as speed breakers was first pioneered in the American city of Philadelphia in 2008, as part of a campaign against speeding motorists. The technique has also been tried out in China to create floating 3D crossings. In India, cities such as Ahmedabad and Chennai have already experimented with 3D zebra crossings in the last one year. In Ahmedabad for instance, a mother and her daughter, both artists, have painted 3D crosswalks in the first few months of 2016. The artists say their motto is "to increase the attention of drivers", and that the concept has been successfully tested in accident-prone zones on a highway.

However, critics argue that once drivers know that these speed breakers are visual illusions, they may ignore them. Others also point out that India's decision does not consider the safety of a large number of pedestrians. In the end, the new policy may be just one step towards improving road safety.

15. What can we learn from Paragraph 3 and 4?

A. The use of optical illusions as speed breakers is controversial in India.

B. Philadelphia is the second place to use virtual speed breakers in the US.

C. The idea tested in Ahmedabad recently has been a failure.

D. The new policy of 3D zebra crossings must be carried out.

【答案】  15. A

【解析】本文叙述了印度政府用3D图画作为主要路段的减速器,目的是使危险的路段变得更安全。

15. A

 

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