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寒假淮南外语培训解析高三二轮复习英语精品资料

寒假淮南外语培训解析高三二轮复习英语精品资料

2018届高三二轮复习英语精品资料【讲案】

专题1    语法填空

【构建知识体系】

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2015-2017年全国高考本专题考查分布明细统计(新课标I卷)

 

动词

形容词

副词

名词

代词

冠词

介词

连词

2015年

4

0

2

1

2

0

1

0

2016年

3

0

1

2

1

1

1

1

2017年

4

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

 

【考纲解读】

考试大纲

要求

考纲解读

《普通高中英语课程标准(实验)》明确指出:高中学生应该学习和掌握的英语语言基础知识包括语音、词汇、语法、功能和话题等五个方面的内容(教育部)。

 

考查考生对语法、词汇和语用知识的掌握情况。

 

语篇型语法填空则更侧重考查考生语法和词汇在语境中的运用,强调词汇的变形。同时强调语篇分析能力,凸显交际性和语境化特征。

 

 

【剖析全国高考真题】——预测高考命题方向

1.【2017·新课标I】阅读下面短文,在空白处填入 1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。

There has been a recent trend in the food service industry toward lower fat content and less salt. This trend, which was started by the medical community(医学界)    1      a method of fighting heart disease, has had some unintended side    2    (effect) such as overweight and heart disease—the very thing the medical community was trying to fight.

  Fat and salt are very important parts of a diet. They are required    3    (process) the food that we eat, to recover from injury and for several other bodily functions. When fat and salt     4     (remove) from food, the food tastes as if is missing something. As    5    result, people will eat more food to try to make up for that something missing. Even      6     (bad),  the amount of fast food that people eat goes up. Fast food     7     (be) full of fat and salt; by    8    (eat) more fast food people will get more salt and fat than they need in their diet.

  Having enough fat and salt in your meals will reduce the urge to snack(吃点心) between meals and will improve the taste of your food. However, be     9     (care) not to go to extremes. Like anything, it is possible to have too much of both,     10    is not good for the health.

【文章大意】本文是一篇说明文。文章讲述了对于食物中的脂肪和盐分,人们的态度不一。脂肪和盐分对于健康来说是必不可少的,但如果人们摄入过多的脂肪和盐分,自身的健康将会收到损害。

1. as 考查介词。句意:这个做法最初是医学界作为一种对抗心脏病的形式开始的。as表示“做为,以...身份”,故填as。

2. effects 考查单复数。分析语境可知作者表达的意思是“一些不为人知的副作用”,根据前文的some可知“副作用side effect”有很多,故填effects。

3. to process 考查不定式。句意:他们被要求加工食物 require表示“要求”, require sb. to do sth.表示“要求某人做某事”,被动形式为“sb. be required to do sth.”,表示“某人被要求做某事”。故填to process。

4. are removed 考查被动语态。句意:当脂肪和盐分从食物中被去掉 分析可知fat,salt和move之间是被动关系,脂肪和盐分是被人们去掉,所以用被动语态。故填are removed。

5. a 考查冠词。固定短语as a result表示“结果”,句意:结果,人们将吃更多的食物去弥补损失的东西。故填a。

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9. careful  考查形容词。句意:然而,注意不要走极端。分析语境可知be后面应该用形容词做表语,故填careful。

10. which 考查非限制性定语从句。句意:很可能摄入过多的脂肪和盐,那对健康没有好处。分析可知which is not good for the health为非限制性定语从句,先行词为前文中的have too much of both“摄入过多的脂肪和盐”。故填which。

【名师点睛】

语法填空题的考查形式为:在一篇200词左右的语篇(短文或对话)中留出10处空白,部分空白的后面给出单词的基本形式,要求考生根据上下文填写空白处所需的内容或所提供单词的正确形式,所填写词语不得多于3个单词。考生须灵活运用语法知识,如单词词性、单词时态、名词单复数、连接词、代词、冠词等判断各空白处应填写的内容。具体考查形式有以下几种:

一、给出动词基本形态,填写词性词形转化(转为名词、形容词),或填写谓语部分,可能需要填写两个或三个词,或是填写非谓语动词;

二、给出形容词,需要填写比较级、最高级,或词性词形转化,转化为副词,或是填写反义词(前缀);

三、给出副词,填写比较级、最高级,或是填写反义词;

四、不给提示词,主要填写介词、连词、冠词和代词。

有提示词:考查谓语动词,非谓语动词,形容词,副词

例如第2题has had some unintended side    2    (effect) such as overweight and heart disease,给出了提示词effect。考生可以从词性变化和单复数两方面考虑,effect可变为形容词effective,变为副词effectively,分析语境可知划线处应该填名词,不需要做词性上的变化。所以考生可以从单复数方面考虑,根据划线处前的some可知应该填名词的复数形式。所以考生可以确定正确答案为effects。

无提示词:考查冠词,介词,连词,代词

例如第10题it is possible to have too much of both,    10   is not good for the health. 结合语境可知作者要表达“很可能摄入过多的脂肪和盐,那对健康没有好处”的意思。分析可知which is not good for the health为非限制性定语从句,先行词为前文中的have too much of both“摄入过多的脂肪和盐”,所以填which。

2. 【2017·新课标II】阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。

    In 1863the first underground passenger railway in the world opened in London. It ran for just under seven kilometers and allowed people to avoid terrible __1__(crowd) on the roads above as they travelled to and ___2__ word. It took three years to complete and was built using an interesting method. This included digging up the road, ____3___(lay) the track and then building a strong roof over___4___ top. When all those had been done, the road surface was replaced.

    Steam engines ___5__(use) to pull the carriages and it must have been___6__(fair)unpleasant for the passengers, with all the smoke and noise. However, the railway quickly proved to be a great success and within six months, more than 25,000 people were using___7__ every day.

Later, engineers ____8___(manage) to construct railways in a system of deep tunnels (隧道), which became known to the tube. This development was only possible with the ___9___ (introduce) of electric-powered engines and lifts. The central London Railway was one of the most ___10___(success) of these new lines, and was opened in 1900. It had white-painted tunnels and bright red carriages, and proved extremely popular with the public.

【解析】

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5.were used考查被动语态,根据句意:蒸汽发动机“被用于”拉货物,故填were used.

6.fairly 考查副词,这里fair是形容词,pleasant也是形容词,所以需要将fair变为副词来修饰形容词,故填fairly.

7.it考查代词,这里用it指代前句的railway,故填it.

8.managed 考查动词,本文全篇都是一般过去时,所以这里也应用一般过去时,故填managed.

9.introduction考查词性转换,空格前是the,后面应该是名词,故填名词introduction.

10.successful考查形容词,空格前是most,其后要跟形容词构成最高级,故填successful.

【名师点睛】

  在语法填空中,我们要特别注意词性转换题。如本文的【小题9】,横线前是冠词the,所以横线上要使用名词introduction。【小题6】,在英语中,副词通常做状语修饰形容词、副词或动词,形容词通常在句中做定语或表语修饰名词。所以本句中使用副词fairly作状语修饰形容词pleasant。

  词类转换题要先确定所要填的单词在句中的成分。

技巧1:作表语、定语或补语,通常用形容词形式。

技巧2:作主语,或在及物动词或介词后作宾语,用名词形式。

技巧3:修饰动词、形容词、副词,或整个句子,作状语,用副词形式。

技巧4:括号中所给词为动词时,也不一定是考动词的时态语态或非谓语动词, 有可能考词类转换;若是形容词或副词,有可能考查其比较级或最高级。

技巧5:词义转换题。词类不一定要变,主要是考查具有与词根意义相反的派生词,需根据句子意思及前后逻辑关系,在词根前加un-, im-,il-, ir-,in-, non-, dis-等,在词根后加-less等。 

考点:考查语法填空

3.【2017·新课标III】阅读下面短文,在空白处填入 1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。

She looks like any other schoolgirl, fresh-faced and full of life. Sarah Thomas is looking forward to challenge of her new A-level course .But unlike school friends ,16-year-old Sarah is not spending half-term     1    (real)Instead, she is earning $6500 a day as  2   model in New York. 

   Sarah   3   (tell) that she could be Britain’s new supermodel earning a million dollars in the new year. Her father Peter44,want her to give up school to model fulltime But Sarah,  4  has taken part in shows along with top models wants  5  (prove) that she has brains as well as beauty she is determined to carry on with her  6  (educate).

She has turned down several   7  (invitation) to star at shows in order to concentrate on her studies After school she plans to take a year off to model full time before going to university to get a degree  8  engineering or architecture. 

Sarah says, "My dad thinks I should take the offer now. But at the moment, school  9  (come) first. I don't want to get too absorbed in modeling. It is  10  (certain) fun but the lifestyle is a little unreal. I don't want to have nothing else to fall back on when I can't model my more."

【文章大意】本文是一篇人物类记叙文,介绍了Sarah Thomas在学业和诱人的职业面前所做出的选择,她认为在青少年时期学业要放在首位。

1. resting考查非谓语动词。  固定短语:spend time doing sth

2. a考查冠词。  model是可数名词,前面没有限定词,而此处泛指 “一个”,故填a。

7. invitations考查名词单复数。several修饰可数名词复数形式,故填invitations。 8. in考查介词。in表示“在某方面”,获得某项学位 “get a degree in…”。 9. comes考查动词。 根据语境可知Sarah认为当下应该是学业第一,说明现在的情况应该用一般现在时。 10. certainly 考查副词。修饰动词应该用副词形式,故填certainly。 【名师点睛】语法填空要求考生阅读一篇短文,然后按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求完成10道语法填空题。做题要求:一是在空格处填入适当的词;二是使用括号中词语的正确形式填空。纯空格题一般要填冠词、介词、连词、代词等,如果是物主代词,则空后需跟名词,比如6题。而有提示词的需要根据语境,分析句子结构,判断所填词的词性,再确定所填词的形式。例如7题,several是修饰复数名词的词,所以判断后面用名词的复数形式。 【高考预测】 纵观近几年全国高考试题,预测2018年全国高考试题还会 ①文体以记叙文、议论文为主。 ②上下文语境提示3-4个,单词基本形式提示6-7个。 ③侧重对词汇变形的考查。 【精讲研法】——课堂讲解突破核心考点  考点一  冠词、代词、介词等小品词 (1)冠词 【例1】【2017·全国卷Ⅰ】As 65.________ result, people will eat more food to try to make up for that something missing. 65. a 考查冠词。固定短语as a result表示“结果是”。结果是,人们将吃更多的食物去弥补损失的东西。故填a。 【例2】【2017·全国卷Ⅱ】This included digging up the road, laying the track and then building a strong roof over 64.________ top. 64. the 考查冠词。此处特指铁轨上方的顶部工程。 规律方法1: 如何判断空格处应填冠词? 下列情况很可能填不定冠词: (1)________+可数名词(单数); (2)________+形容词+可数名词(单数)。 下列情况下很可能填定冠词: (1)________ (+定语)+名词+ of等介词短语(表示特指); (2)________ (+定语)+名词+定语从句(表示特指); (3)________ (+定语)+名词+不定式短语或分词短语(表示特指)。 【变式精练】1. As I share the experience of this kindness, I’m wearing my widest smile. I usually go to my workplace coffee shop to place___41___order but this Wednesday, it was slightly different. (广东省五校(阳春一中,肇庆一中,真光一中,深圳高级中学,深圳二高)2018届高三12月联考) 【答案】41. an   【解析】41. 考查冠词。place an order“下订单”,order“订单”是可数名词,是以元音因素开头的单词,故填an。 2. One discovery I made about giving away is that it is almost possible to give away anything in this world without getting something back, though the return often comes in  ____44____ unexpected form.(安徽省皖西南名校2018年高三阶段性检测联考) 【答案】an

7. invitations考查名词单复数。several修饰可数名词复数形式,故填invitations。

8. in考查介词。in表示“在某方面”,获得某项学位 “get a degree in…”。

9. comes考查动词。 根据语境可知Sarah认为当下应该是学业第一,说明现在的情况应该用一般现在时。

10. certainly 考查副词。修饰动词应该用副词形式,故填certainly。

【名师点睛】语法填空要求考生阅读一篇短文,然后按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求完成10道语法填空题。做题要求:一是在空格处填入适当的词;二是使用括号中词语的正确形式填空。纯空格题一般要填冠词、介词、连词、代词等,如果是物主代词,则空后需跟名词,比如6题。而有提示词的需要根据语境,分析句子结构,判断所填词的词性,再确定所填词的形式。例如7题,several是修饰复数名词的词,所以判断后面用名词的复数形式。

【高考预测】

纵观近几年全国高考试题,预测2018年全国高考试题还会

①文体以记叙文、议论文为主。

②上下文语境提示3-4个,单词基本形式提示6-7个。

③侧重对词汇变形的考查。

【精讲研法】——课堂讲解突破核心考点 

考点一  冠词、代词、介词等小品词

(1)冠词

【例1】【2017·全国卷Ⅰ】As 65.________ result, people will eat more food to try to make up for that something missing.

65. a 考查冠词。固定短语as a result表示“结果是”。结果是,人们将吃更多的食物去弥补损失的东西。故填a。

【例2】【2017·全国卷Ⅱ】This included digging up the road, laying the track and then building a strong roof over 64.________ top.

64. the 考查冠词。此处特指铁轨上方的顶部工程。

规律方法1: 如何判断空格处应填冠词?

下列情况很可能填不定冠词:

(1)________+可数名词(单数);

(2)________+形容词+可数名词(单数)。

下列情况下很可能填定冠词:

(1)________ (+定语)+名词+ of等介词短语(表示特指);

(2)________ (+定语)+名词+定语从句(表示特指);

(3)________ (+定语)+名词+不定式短语或分词短语(表示特指)。

【变式精练】1. As I share the experience of this kindness, I’m wearing my widest smile. I usually go to my workplace coffee shop to place___41___order but this Wednesday, it was slightly different.

(广东省五校(阳春一中,肇庆一中,真光一中,深圳高级中学,深圳二高)2018届高三12月联考)

【答案】41. an  

【解析】41. 考查冠词。place an order“下订单”,order“订单”是可数名词,是以元音因素开头的单词,故填an。

2. One discovery I made about giving away is that it is almost possible to give away anything in this world without getting something back, though the return often comes in  ____44____ unexpected form.(安徽省皖西南名校2018年高三阶段性检测联考)

【答案】an   

(2)代词

【例1】However, the railway quickly proved to be a great success and within six months, more than 25,000 people were using 67.________ every day. (2017·全国卷Ⅱ)

【答案】67. it 

【解析】考查代词。it指代伦敦地铁。

【例2】On my recent visit, I help a lively three-month-old twin that had been rejected by _____68_ (it) mother. (2016·新课标Ⅰ)

【答案】 its

【解析】考查代词。 its考查代词。 修饰名词用形容词性的物主代词,故填its。

规律方法2: 如何判断空格处应填代词?

(1)无提示词。

(2)作主语用主格,作宾语用宾格,注意形容词词性和名词性物主代词的区别。

(3)指示代词(it和this),不定代词,it用作引导词,反身代词等。

【变式精练】As Cambridge approached ___47___ (it) eight hundredth anniversary in 2009, it was looking to the future.(广西贵港市2018届高三上学期12月联考)

【答案】its  

【解析】47. 形容词物主代词修饰名词,答案为its。句意:当剑桥2009年800年校庆之际,它正展望未来。

 

3、介词

【例1】[2017·全国卷Ⅱ]阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。

In 1863 the first underground passenger railway in the world opened in London. It ran for just under seven kilometres and allowed people to avoid terrible crowds on the roads above as they travelled to and 62.________ work. It took three years to complete and was built using an interesting method.

【答案】62. from 

【解析】考查介词。与前面的介词to一起来表示上下班(to and from work)。

【例2】[2017·全国卷Ⅲ]

After school she plans to take a year off to model full­time before going to university to get a degree 68.________ engineering or architecture.

【答案】68. in 

【解析】考查介词。get a degree in是固定搭配,意为“在……方面获得学位”。

规律方法3:如何判断空格处应填介词?

(1)无提示词:注意搭配问题。

(2)与名词相连构成介宾短语担任状语,补语等。

(3)与不及物动词构成动词短语接宾语。

【变式精练】“What if this” and, “What if that”, but I decided to let go of the worries and listen___49___ my heart.(广东省五校(阳春一中,肇庆一中,真光一中,深圳高级中学,深圳二高)2018届高三12月联考)

【答案】故填to

考点二  连接词

【例1】Like anything, it is possible to have too much of both,     70    is not good for the health.

(2017·新课标I)

【答案】which

 

【例2】But Sarah,  64  has taken part in shows along with top models wants  to prove that she has brains as well as beauty she is determined to carry on with hereducation.(2017·新课标III)

【答案】who

【解析】64. who考查定语从句。非限制性定语从句中缺少主语,代替先行词Sarah,应该用人称代词who。

【例3】Pahlsson and her husband now think the ring probably got swept into a pile of kitchen rubbish and was spread over the garden,   64  it remained until the carrot’s leafy top accidentally sprouted (生长) through it.(2017·浙江卷)

【答案】where

【解析】考查连接词。“ 64     it remained until the carrot’s leafy top accidentally sprouted (生长) through it”,句子结构完整,先行词为 the garden,表示地点,定语从句中缺少相对应的地点状语,故填where。

【例4】So, get an early start and try to be as productive  45 possible before lunch. (2016·新课标Ⅲ)

【答案】as 

【解析】考查固定搭配。短语as...as....和...一样;正是因为人们早晨的注意力更为集中,所以我们要早起,要和午饭之前一样的高效率。

规律方法4:如何判断空格处应填连接词?

(1) 并列连词:如果空格在两个或几个单词或短语之间,那么就可能填连词。

(2) 主从复合句的连接词:如果两个句子之间没有连词,也没有分号或句号,那么一定是填引导从句的连接词。

【变式精练】Meanwhile, as the construction goes on, more roads  will be built and the Metro system will be expanded,  ___68___ can reduce traffic jams. (江西省红色七校2018届高三第一次联考)

【答案】which

【解析】68. 句意:更多的公路将被建成,更多的地铁将被延伸,这将会减少交通事故。此处前面整个句子做先行词,后面是which引导的非限制性定语从句,故答案为which。

考点三  时态、语态、语气

【例1】[2017·全国卷Ⅰ]When fat and salt     64.________ (remove) from food, the food tastes as if it is missing something.

【例2】[2017·全国卷Ⅱ]Steam engines 65.________ (use) to pull the carriages and it must have been 66.________ (fair) unpleasant for the passengers, with all the smoke and noise.

65. were used 考查动词语态。蒸汽机(注意复数名词形式)被用来作为火车动力。

66. fairly 考查副词。副词修饰形容词。

【例3】[2017·全国卷Ⅱ] Later, engineers 68.________ (manage) to construct railways in a system of deep tunnels (隧道), which became known as the Tube.

68. managed 考查动词时态。描述地铁发展演变过程用过去时态。

【例4】[2017·全国卷Ⅲ] Sarah 63.________ (tell) that she could be Britain's new supermodel, earning a million dollars in the next year.

63. has been told/was told 考查动词的时态和语态。 tell后接双宾语, 因此可判断此句用被动语态;再根据后面句子的时态可判断用现在完成时或一般过去时。

【例5】[2017·全国卷Ⅲ] But at the moment, school 69.________ (come) first.

69. comes 考查动词的时态。根据at the moment可知这个句子应用一般现在时,而且主语是单数,故用comes。

【例6】[2017·浙江卷6月考]Pahlsson and her husband 62.________ (search) the kitchen, checking every corner, but turned up nothing. “I gave up hope of finding my ring again,” she says. She never replaced it.                           

Pahlsson and her husband now think the ring probably got 63.________ (sweep) into a pile of kitchen rubbish and was spread over the garden, 64.________ it remained until the carrot's leafy top accidentally sprouted (生长) through it.

62. searched 考查动词的时态。根据语意可知,他们过去曾搜遍了整个厨房,故填searched。

63. swept  考查过去分词。此处是get done结构,表示被动,意为“被扫进了垃圾堆”。

规律方法5:如何判断空格处应填时态、语态、语气?

(1) 寻找关键信息词。题干中的某些关键信息对于解答时态、语态、语气类的题目尤为重要。

(2) 利用上下文语境。利用上下文语境是解决时态、语态、语气类题目常用的最有效的方法,

(3) 判断是否是客观真理。如果句子所表达的是客观真理、寓言故事、谚语、格言等,通常用一般现在时。

【变式精练】One Sunday morning the local post office delivered a letter to my home, though it ____45____ (address) to me at my office.(安徽省皖西南名校2018年高三阶段性检测联考)

【答案】was addressed

考点四 非谓语动词

【例1】[2017·全国卷Ⅰ]

Fat and salt are very important parts of a diet. They are required 63.________ (process) the food that we eat, to recover from injury and for several other bodily functions.

63. to process 考查不定式。需要它们来加工我们所吃的食物。 require表示“要求”, require to do sth表示“要求做某事”,被动形式为be required to do sth,表示“被要求做某事”。故填to process。

【例2】[2017·全国卷Ⅰ]by 68.________ (eat) more fast food people will get more salt and fat than they need in their diet.

68. eating 考查动名词。根据前文中的by可知此处应该填eat的动名词形式。故填eating。

【例2】[2017·全国卷Ⅱ]

This included digging up the road, 63.________ (lay) the track and then building a strong roof over the top.

63. laying 考查非谓语动词。此处用lay的动名词形式laying与前面的digging形成并列。该词填空难度较大,若考生未辨明lie—lying/lay/lain和lay—laying/laid/laid等特殊词形变化会导致错误。

【例3】 [2017·全国卷Ⅲ]

She looks like any other schoolgirl, fresh­faced and full of life. Sarah Thomas is looking forward to the challenge of her new A­level course. But unlike her school friends, 16­year­old Sarah is not spending half­term 61.________ (rest).

61. resting 考查非谓语动词。spend…(in) doing sth是固定句式,意为“花……做某事”。

【例4】[2017·全国卷Ⅲ]But Sarah, who has taken part in shows along with top models, wants 65.________ (prove) that she has brains as well as beauty.

65. to prove 考查动词不定式。want to do sth为固定搭配,故用动词不定式。

【例5】[2017·浙江卷6月考]

Sixteen years earlier, Pahlsson had removed the diamond ring 61.________ (cook) a meal. When she wanted to put the ring back on later, it was gone. She suspected that one of her three daughters—then ten, eight, and six—had picked it up, but the girls said they hadn't. Pahlsson and her husband searched the kitchen, checking every corner, but turned up nothing. “I gave up hope of finding my ring again,” she says. She never replaced it.                           

Pahlsson and her husband now think the ring probably got 63.________ (sweep) into a pile of kitchen rubbish and was spread over the garden, 64.________ it remained until the carrot's leafy top accidentally sprouted (生长) through it.

规律方法6:如何判断空格处应填非谓语动词?

(1) 正确判断非谓语动词。句子按照结构可分为三类,即简单句、并列句和复合句。并列句和复合句都需要连词来引导,如果句子中出现了连词,应选谓语动词形式;如果两个结构中未出现连词,则考虑用非谓语动词。

(2) 正确判断非谓语动词和逻辑主语之间的关系。

确定要选非谓语动词之后,第二步要分析其逻辑主语。非谓语动词虽不能作谓语,但仍具有动词特点,其逻辑上的动作执行者就叫作逻辑主语。判断非谓语动词与逻辑主语的关系是主动还是被动。非谓语动词作状语时,其逻辑主语须和句子的真正主语一致,找不到其逻辑主语时,整个句子或句子的主语就是非谓语动词的逻辑主语。正确判断非谓语动词与其逻辑主语之间的关系是正确选择非谓语动词形式的保证,不管是作什么成分的非谓语动词都具有以下特点: 

1.如果非谓语动词与其逻辑主语之间是主谓关系,可用现在分词; 

2.如果非谓语动词与其逻辑主语之间是动宾关系,可用过去分词。

(3)正确判断非谓语动词和谓语动词发生的时间先后顺序

非谓语动词具备动词的一些特点,也可以有动作发生的时间。对于谓语动词,我们用时态来表示动词发生的时间;对于非谓语动词不能用时态来表示动作发生的时间。非谓语动词所表示的时间是一个相对时间,即相对于谓语动词的时间而言。同时也需要了解非谓语动词的不同形式所指时间的含义。如to have done,having done表示该动作在谓语动词的动作之前发生;to be doing,doing强调与谓语动词的动作同时发生。

【变式精练】1. I had for a long time had a desire___47___(reach)out to them but my doubting mind had always had an upper hand.(广东省五校2018届高三12月联考)

【答案】to reach    

【解析】47. 考查动词。句意:长久以来我有一种渴望,愿意给他们提供帮助,但是我犹豫不决的心理总是占上风。have a desire to do sth.“作……的渴望”是常用搭配。故填to reach。

2. Another wonderful site, one that I check out every day,___46___ (call) Science Daily.(河北省五个一联盟2018届高三上学期第二次模拟)

【答案】2. is called

考点五  形容词、副词的等级及利用构词法进行词类转换

【例1】[2017·全国卷Ⅰ]Even 66.________ (bad), the amount of fast food that people eat goes up.

66. worse 考查比较级。更糟糕的是,人们所吃的快餐的数量增加了。故填worse。

【例2】[2017·全国卷Ⅰ]However, be 69.________ (care) not to go to extremes.

69. careful 考查形容词。分析语境可知be后面应该用形容词作表语,故填careful。

【例3】[2017·全国卷Ⅱ]Steam engines 65.________ (use) to pull the carriages and it must have been 66.________ (fair) unpleasant for the passengers, with all the smoke and noise.

65. were used 考查动词语态。蒸汽机(注意复数名词形式)被用来作为火车动力。

66. fairly 考查副词。副词修饰形容词。

【例4】[2017·全国卷Ⅱ]The Central London Railway was one of the most 70.________ (success) of these new lines, and was opened in 1900. It had white­painted tunnels and bright red carriages, and proved extremely popular with the public.

70. successful 考查形容词。形容词与定冠词连用,相当于名词,由于该词后有介词of结构,故只能用形容词。

【例5】[2017·全国卷Ⅲ]It is 70._____ ___ (certain) fun but the lifestyle is a little unreal. I don't want to have nothing else to fall back on when I can't model any more.”

70. certainly 考查副词。certainly在此处修饰形容词fun。

【例6】[2017·浙江卷6月考]But something made her look closer, and she noticed a 57.________ (shine) object. Yes, there beneath the leafy top of one tiny carrot was her long­lost wedding ring.

57. shiny/shining 考查形容词。此处根据下文的object可知,需用形容词作定语,故填shiny或shining。

【例7】[2017·浙江卷6月考]

Sixteen years 60.________ (early), Pahlsson had removed the diamond ring 61.________ (cook) a meal.

60. earlier 考查比较级。此处语意表示“16年前”,故填earlier。

61. to cook 考查不定式。此处不定式表示目的。语境为“取下戒指来做饭”,故填to cook。

【例8】The title will be __63___(official) given to me at a ceremony in London.(2016·新课标Ⅰ)

【答案】 officially

【解析】考查副词。修饰动词用副词形式。

【例9】Recent studies show that we are far more productive at work if we take short breaks  47  (regular).(2016·全国新课标II)

【答案】regularly 

【例10】Food in small pieces could be eaten easily with twigs which    46   (gradual) turned into chopsticks.(2016·全国新课标Ⅲ)

【答案】gradually

【解析】考查副词。副词修饰动词或形容词,这里修饰动词短语turned into,应该用副词,故填gradually。

规律方法7:如何判断空格处应填容词、副词的等级及利用构词法进行词类转换?

(1) 正确判断形容词、副词的等级。通过语境或特殊句式确定形容词或副词的等级。

(2) 根据所给词的语法功能确定词的正确形式。

【变式精练】1. Cambridge University is one of the ___41___ (old) universities in the world, and one of the largest in the United Kingdom.  (广西贵港市2018届高三上学期12月联考)

【答案】oldest  

【解析】41. 句意:Cambridge University是世界上最古老的大学之一。再根据the可知此处用最高级,故答案为oldest。

2. International students often underestimate the stress caused by ___46___ (sudden) changing cultures, friends, methods of teaching and living environments.(四川省蓉城名校高2018届高三上学期第一次联考)

【答案】suddenly   

【解析】46. suddenly    考查副词用法。suddenly修饰动名词changing。国际生通常低估了文化、朋友圈、教学方法和生活环境的突然变化。

3. The articles are intended for younger readers, but adults will find this site ___45___ (suit) for them as well.(河北省五个一联盟2018届高三上学期第二次模拟)

【答案】suitable。

【解析】45. 考查固定结构。find + sb. / sth. + adj. 意为“发现某人(物)……”。形容词作find的宾语补足语,所以填suitable。

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