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淮南英语培训: 淮南英语培训机构 > 初中辅导 > 初三辅导 > 初三英语知识点-被动语态超详细讲解

初三英语知识点-被动语态超详细讲解

一 |被动语态的含义与结构

英语中时态很多,但语态不多,只有两种,即:主动语态和被动语态。所谓“被动语态”,相当于中文中常说的“被……”,“由……”的句式,如:“他的自行车被偷了。”,“这座楼房是由他们建造的。”

那么,英语中被动语态是怎么样构成的呢?请看下面的例句:

His bicycle was stolen.

The building has been built in 2000.

通过上面的例句,可以看出,“被动语态”的构成是:

be + 过去分词 ( + by + 动作执行者)

 

二 |被动语态的运用

 

什么情况下要用被动语态呢?一般地说,有下面几种情况:

1. 不知道谁是动作的执行者或没有必要。例如:

Paper is made from wood.

纸是由木材生产出来的。

The house is quite old. It was built in 1950.

这座房子太旧了。它是1950年建成的。

He was wounded in the fight.

他在战斗在受伤了。

Electricity is used to run machines.

电是用来开动机器的。

 

2. 需要强调动作的对象时。例如:

Calculator can't be used in the maths exam.

计算器不能用于数学考试。

Books and newspapers in the reading room mustnt be taken away.

阅览室的书籍和报纸不准带走。

He was awarded first prize in that contest.

他在比赛中获得了第一。

 

3. 为了使语气婉转,避免提到是谁做的这件事。例如:

The construction of the new lab must be completed by the end of next month.

新实验室必须在下个月底前完工。

 

三 |各种时态的被动语态

 

一般地讲,被动语态可用于英语的各种时态。为了能准确地运用被动语态,重点是要掌握be动词的各种时态变化。各种时态的被动语态举例如下:

 

1.一般现在时的被动语态: 

am / is / are + 动词的过去分词

Our classroom is cleaned every day.

This car is made in China.

 

2. 一般过去式的被动语态: 

was / were + 动词的过去分词

His desk was cleaned just now.

The station was built in 1928.

 

3. 现在进行时的被动语态: 

am / is / are + being + 动词的过去分词

A new factory is being built in our city now.

Some trees are being cut down in the park.

 

4. 过去进行时的被动语态: 

was / were + being + 过去分词

A new factory was being built in our city at that time.

Some babies were being looked after by Miss Chen last year.

 

5. 一般将来时的被动语态:

(1) will / shall + be + 过去分词

Some new factories will be built in our city this year.

 

(2) am / is / are + going to be + 过去分词

Your watch is going to be mended in an hour.

 

6. 过去将来时的被动语态: 

(1) would / should + be + 过去分词

She said that some new factories would be built soon in our city.

 

(2) was / were +going to be + 过去分词

He thought that your watch was going to be mended after an hour.

 

7. 现在完成时的被动语态:

have / has + been + 过去分词

Some new factories have been built in the city since last year.

Your watch has been mended already.

 

8. 过去完成时的被动语态:

had + been + 过去分词

He said that some new factories had been built in the city.

I didn’t know that my watch had been mended .

 

9. 含情态动词的被动式:

can/may/must + be + 过去分词

He can not be found. / I must be paid for this.

 

四 |主动语态与被动语态转换

 

1. 从句子意义上说,就是重新找出“什么事物”是“被完成”的。

(1)主动语态:人们说英语。

People speak English in many countries.

被动语态:英语被说。

English is spoken in many countries..

 

(2) 主动语态:我们造这座桥。

We built this bridge last year.

被动语态:这座桥被建造。

This bridge was built last year.

 

2. 从语法的角度说,把原句的宾语改成主语。

(1) 主动语态:小王邀请你(宾语)

Xiao Liu has invited you to a lunch party.

被动语态:你(宾语)被邀请。

You has been invited to a lunch party by Xiao Wang.

 

(2) 主动语态:你不准带走杂志(宾语)

You must not take these magazines out of the reading-room.

被动语态:杂志(宾语)不准被带走.

These magazines must not be taken out of the reading room.

 

(3) 主动语态:他们授给他(宾语)一枚奖章(宾语).

They gave him a medal for his wonderful work.

被动语态:他(宾语)被授予一枚奖章.

He was given a medal for his wonderful work.

被动语态:一枚奖章(宾语)被授给了他.

A medal was given to him for his wonderful work.

 

 

五 |被动语态复习要点

 
 

no.1

熟记结构

被动语态的结构为“助动词be+及物动词的过去分词”。被动语态的不同时态是通过be的时态变化来表示的,其人称和数方面应与主语保持一致。其具体变化为:

一般现在时:am/is/are+过去分词

一般过去时:was/were+过去分词

一般将来时:shall /will be +过去分词

现在完成时:have /has been +过去分词

现在进行时:am/is/are+being+过去分词

过去将来时:should /would be +过去分词

 

含情态动词的被动结构:情态动词+be+过去分词 例如:

①Chinese is spoken by the largest number of people.

②The boy was told to get supper ready after school.

③A lot of new roads must be built in the west of China.

 

 
 

no.2

明确用法

被动语态常用于以下两种情况:

(1) 不知道谁是动作的执行者,或者没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者;

(2) 强调动作的承受者。例如:

The tree was broken by that boy.

这棵树是那个男孩弄断的。

 

 
 

no.3

熟练转换

(1) 将主动语态变被动语态的基本方法为:

①将主动语态的宾语作被动语态的主语;

②谓语动词变为“be+及物动词的过去分词”,并通过be的变化来表达出不同的时态;

③主动语态的主语变为介词by的宾语,组成介词短语放在被动结构中的谓语动词之后。(有时by短语可以省略)。

 

(2) 被动语态的一般疑问句是将一个助动词置于主语之前;否定句是在第一个助动词后加not;

特殊疑问句的语序为:疑问词+一般疑问句。例如:

①You must throw the broken pottery away at once.

→The broken pottery must be thrown away at once.

②Where did they grow vegetables?

→Where were vegetables grown?

 

 
 

no.4

特殊情况

(1) 含双宾语的主动结构变为被动结构时,有两种方法:

①将间接宾语变为主语,直接宾语保持不变;

He told us a story.

→We were told a story (by him).

或:A story was told to us by him.

②将直接宾语变为主语,间接宾语用介词to或for引导。例如:

Her mother gave her a new pen.

→A new pen was given to her by her mother.

 

(2) 短语动词的被动语态:在变为被动语态时,要将短语动词视为一个整体,其后的介词或副词不能省去。例如:

This dictionary mustn't be taken away from the library.

The children will be taken good care of (by her).

 

(3) 含有复合宾语的主动结构变被动结构时,通常将宾语变为被动句的主语,而宾语补足语就成为主语补足语。注意:省略to的不定式作宾补时,不定式符号to必须补上。例如:

He was seen to swim in Qianling Lake yesterday.

 

(4) 不定式的被动结构:动词不定式的被动语态为“to be +过去分词”。例如:

The radio says a wild animal zoo is to be built in our city.

 

(5) 以疑问代词开头的疑问句转换成被动句时要注意词序:应将主动句中的疑问代词改为介词by的宾语,但仍然放在句子开头。例如:

Who has broken the cup?

→By whom has the cup been broken?

 

 
 

no.5

注意区别

被动语态和过去分词作表语的区别:

 

(1) 含义不同:被动语态强调动作,重点说明动作由谁完成.怎样完成;而过去分词作表语通常用来描写情景,叙述人或事物的特征及所处的状态。试比较:

 

The window is broken. 

窗子破了。(系表结构)

The window is broken by him. 

窗子被他打破了。(被动语态)

 

(2) 用法不同:过去分词作表语时可以被 so,very,too等程度副词修饰,而被动语态则不能用so,very,too修饰,而需用much,very much,so much,too much修饰。试比较:

 

He was very interested in science.

他对科学有极大兴趣。(系表结构)

I was so much surprised at the scene that I didn't know what to do. 

我被那种场面搞得大吃一惊,不知所措。(被动语态)

 

 
 

no.6

牢记句型

初中教材中与被动语态相关的句型有:

be covered with 被……覆盖

be made of 由……制作(发生物理变化)

be made from 由……制作(发生化学变化)

be made in 由(某地)制造

be made by 被(某人)制造

be used for 被用来……

be used as 被当作(作为)……来使用

be used to do sth.  被用来做某事

It is said that. . .  据说……

It is hoped that. . .  希望……

It is well known that. . .  众所周知……

 

六 |几种特殊的被动语态

 

1. 带不定式的被动语态

The child is sure to be punished for that.

那个孩子肯定会因为那件事受罚的。

 

2. 带介词的动词短语的被动语态

Such a thing has never been heard of.

这件事前所未闻。

 

3. 带副词的动词短语的被动语态

The radio has just been turned off.

收音机刚刚被关上。

 

4. 用主动形式表达被动意义

当sell, wash, clean, run, ride, wear, write等动词若有状语well, easily, badly来修饰时,用主动形式表达被动意义

The pen writes well.

钢笔写字流畅。

The book sells well.

这本书很畅销。

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